高中英语语法

高中英语语法

高中英语语法精讲:虚拟语气应用讲解

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 36 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:40 • 来自相关话题

高中英语语法精讲:虚拟语气应用讲解 虚拟语气除主要用于条件句(也就是状语从句)外,还可用于主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、定语从句等。 1. 虚拟语气在主语从句中的应用 “ ...查看全部
322.jpg

高中英语语法精讲:虚拟语气应用讲解

虚拟语气除主要用于条件句(也就是状语从句)外,还可用于主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、定语从句等。

1. 虚拟语气在主语从句中的应用

“常用在It is (was)+形容词 / 过去分词+that引导的主语从句”的句型中的主语从句要用虚拟语气。主语从句的谓语用should+动词原形(或should+have+过去分词)或只用动词原形(尤其是美国英语)。should在此是助动词,本身并无实义,这种主语从句中的should有时有感情色彩。

It's important that we(should)work out a plan. (带有“要求”的含义)

It's better that he go at once. (带有“建议”的意思)

☆ 用于本句型的形容词并不多,常见形容词有:necessary,important,best, right, impossible,preferable,desirable, imperative, advisable,essential,reserved,urgent, 等。

It is necessary that he(should)be sent there at once.

It's strange that he should say so.

I was glad that he should go.

It is important that we should speak politely.

It is a pity that she should fare so badly.

It's right that you should think that way.

☆用于本句型中的过去分词就是表示提议要求、命令等动词的过去分词,如suggested,settled, required,requested,demanded,urged,decided, proposed,ordered,desired,advised等。

It is requested that Professor Liu(should)give us a lecture.

It is desired that we(should)get everything ready by tonight.

I’m ashamed you should have done such a thing.

It has been suggested that the meeting(should)be put off.有人建议推迟会议。

It is settled that you leave us, then?

注意:这种句型中的主语从句也可用陈述语气,如:It was important that he made an explicit statement on this score last week. 他上个星期对于这一方面做了明确的说明,这是很重要的。

2. 虚拟语气在宾语从句中的应用

1). 宾语从句在表示提议、要求、命令、意志等动词后,其谓语用should+动词原形或只用动词原形的虚拟语气,作为suggest,request,demand,urge,propose,prefer,advise,insist,require,order,command,maintain,ask,object, arrange, desire等动词的宾语。

如:

The doctor suggested that he not go there.医生建议他不要去那里。

He suggested that we should leave early. 他建议我们早点动身。

The judge ordered that the prisoner should be remanded. 法官命令被告还押。

2). wish的宾语的从句,表示愿望,常省去连词that。

☆ 从句的谓语动词可用过去式,表示现在的愿望(与现在事实相反),虽实现的可能性不大,但仍有实现的可能。

   I wish it were true.我但愿这是真的。

☆ 从句的谓语动词还可用“could(would,might)+动词原形”用来表示将来的愿望

   I wish you would stay a little longer.我希望你再待一会儿。

   ☆ 表示无能为力的过去愿望(与过去事实相反),可用“had +过去分词”或“could(would,might)+have+过去分词”

I wish you had called yesterday.我希望你昨天来过电话。

We wish you had come to our New Year’s party.我们真希望你来参加了我们的新年联欢会。

3). would rather, would sooner等表示愿望,其宾语从句常用虚拟过去式。

☆ 表示与现在和将来含义事实相反的虚拟语气要用动词的过去式

☆ 用过去完成式(had + 过去分词)表示过去事实相反的含义

I would rather you came tomorrow.我宁愿你明天来。

I’d sooner she left the heavy end of the work to some one else.我宁愿她把重活留给别人。

4). 有些动词,如think, expect, believe,其否定式的宾语从句亦可用should+动词原形。如:

I never thought he should refuse.我万没有想到他会拒绝。

She did not expect that you should come.她没有预料你会来。

3. 虚拟语气在表语从句中的应用

名词suggestion,proposal,order,advice,demand等作主语,其后的表语从句中的谓语动词一般使用虚拟语气,用should +动词原形或省略should。

My suggestion is that we (should) send a few soldiers to help them.

我的建议是我们应派几个战士去增援他们。

My advice is that you (should) treat her well. 我的忠告是你应该善待她。

He makes the demand that she (should) leave the place at once.

他提出一个要求,要求她立刻离开这个地方。

My suggestion is that we should tell him.我的建议是我们应该告诉他。

Our only request is that this should be settled as soon as possible.

我们唯一的请求就是尽快解决这个问题。

注意:虚拟语气也可以用于同位语从句。

如:There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team.有一项建议是布朗应该离队。

4. 虚拟语气在定语从句中的应用

常用在It is time (that)…句型中,定语从句常用虚拟过去式

It is time the children went to bed. 孩子们早该上床睡觉了。(表示催促)

It's high time that he began to think how to deal with money.

他早该开始考虑如何与钱打交道。

It is time we left.我们该走了。

It is time we went to bed.我们该去睡觉了。

5. 虚拟式动词原形亦常用在独立句中,表愿望

Long live the Communist Party of China!中国共产党万岁!

God bless you! 上帝保佑你。

God damn it! 该死的!

The devil take you! 见鬼去吧!

So be it then. 就那样吧。

6. 虚拟时态与谓语动词时态的关系:从句中的虚拟时态往往不受全句谓语时态的影响。

1) 用于主语从句。试比较:

It is important that he should know about this.他必须知道此事。

It was important that he should know about this.他必须知道此事。

2) 用于宾语从句。试比较:

I suggest that we should go tomorrow.我建议我们明天走。

I suggested that we should go the next day.我建议我们第二天走。

She said, “If I were a boy I would join the army.”她说,“我如是男孩,就参军。”

She said that if she were a boy, she would join the army.她说她如是男孩就参军。

但强调现在时刻的虚拟式在间接引语中需要遵守时态一致的原则。试比较:

“If I knew how it worked, I could tell you what to do,” he said.

“假如我知道它是如何运行的话,我就会告诉你该怎么办,”他说道。

He said that if he had known how it worked he could have told me what to do.

他说假如他知道它是如何运行的话,他就会告诉我该怎么办。

“If I knew the answer to all your questions I'd be a genius,” he said.

“我如知道你所有问题的答案,我就是天才了。”他说道。

He said that if he knew the answer to all my questions, he’d be a genius.

他说他如知道我所有问题的答案,他就是天才了。

但如果全句谓语是虚拟语气,其后从句的时态则多受其影响,现在时态应随之而变为过去时态。

如:I would think he was wrong.我看他是错了。(须用was,试比较:I think he is wrong)

It would seem that she was right. 她似乎是对的。(须用was,试比较:It seems that she is right)

高考英语语法提升:虚拟语气专项练习题

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 41 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:37 • 来自相关话题

高考英语语法提升:虚拟语气专项练习题 专项练习1: 1.I enjoyed the movie very much. I wish I _____ the book from which it was ...查看全部
2.jpg

高考英语语法提升:虚拟语气专项练习题

专项练习1:

1.I enjoyed the movie very much. I wish I _____ the book from which it was made.

A. have read B. had read

C. should have read D. are reading

2.You are late. If you _____ a few minutes earlier, you _____ him.

A. come; would meet B. had come; would have met

C. come; will meet D. had come; would meet

3.The two students talked as if they _____ friends for years.

A. should be B. would be

C. have been D. had been

4.It is important that I _____ with Mr. Williams immediately.

A. speak B. spoke

C. will speak D. to speak

5.He looked as if he _____ ill for a long time.

A. was B. Were   C. has been D. had been

6.If the doctor had come earlier, the poor child would not _____.

A. have laid there for two hours B. have been lied there for two hours

C. have lied there for two hours D. have lain there for two hours

7.I wish that I _____ with you last night.

A. went B. could go

C. have gone D. could have gone

8.Let’s say you could go there again, how _____ feel?

A. will you B. should you

C. would you D. do you

9.I can’t stand him. He always talks as though he _____ everything.

A. knew B. knows

C. has known D. had known

10._____ the fog, we should have reached our school.

A. Because of B. In spite of

C. In case of D. But for

11.If you had told me in advance, I _____ him at the airport.

A. would meet B. would had met

C. would have met D. would have meet

12.Mike can take his car apart and put it back together again. I certainly wish he_____ me how.

A. teaches B. will teach

C. has taught D. would teach

13.I would have told him the answer, had it been possible, but I _____ so busy then.

A. had been B. were

C. was D. would be

14.He’s working hard for fear that he _____.

A. should fall behind B. fell behind

C. may fall behind D. would fallen behind

15.If it _____ another ten minutes, the game would have been called off.

A. had rained B. would have rained

C. have seen D. rained

16.He suggested that they _____ use a trick instead of fighting.

A. should B. would

C. do D. had

17.My father did not go to New York; the doctor suggested that he _____ there.

A. not went B. won’t go

C. not go D. not to go

18.I would have gone to the meeting if I _____ time.

A. had had B. have had

C. had D. would have had

19.Would you rather I _____ buying a new bike?

A. decided against B. will decide against

C. have decided D. shall decide against

20.You look so tired tonight. It is time you _____.

A. go to sleep B. went to sleep

C. go to bed D. went to bed

21.—Why didn’t you buy a new car?

—I would have bought one if I _____ enough money.

A. had B. have had

C. would have D. had had

22.If she could sew, _____.

A. she make a dress B. she would have made a shirt

C. she will make a shirt D. she would had made a coat

23._____ today, he would get there by Friday.

A. Would he leave B. Was he leaving

C. Were he to leave D. If he leaves

24.His doctor suggested that he _____ a short trip abroad.

A. will take B. would take

C. take D. took

25.The Bakers arrived last night. If they’d only let us know earlier,_____ at the station.

A. we’d meet them B. we’ll meet them

C. we’d have met them D. we’ve met them

26.If I _____ you, I _____ more attention to English idioms and phrases.

A. was; shall pay B. am; will pay

C. would be; would pay D. were; would pay

27.We might have failed if you _____ us a helping hand.

A. have not given B. would not give

C. had not given D. did not give

28.The law requires that everyone _____ his car checked at least once a year.

A. has B. had

C. have D. will have

29.It is strange that he _____ so.

A. would say B. would speak

C. should say D. will speak

30.Had I known her name, _____

A. or does she know mine? B. and where does she live?

C. she would be beautiful. D. I would have invited her to lunch.

31.He has just arrived, but he talks as if he _____ all about that.

A. know B. knows

C. known D. knew

32.If I _____ the money, I would have bought a much bigger car.

A. possessed B. owned

C. had D. had had

33.He was very busy yesterday; otherwise, he _____ to the meeting.

A. would come B. came

C. would have come D. will come

34.The librarian insists that John _____ no more books from the library before he returns all the books he has borrowed.

A. will take B. took

C. take D. takes

35.I left very early last night, but I wish I _____ so early.

A. didn’t leave B. hadn’t left

C. haven’t left D. couldn’t leave

36.I do not have a job. I would find one but I _____ no time.

A. had B. didn’t have

C. had had D. have

37.I wish that you _____ such a bad headache because I’m sure that you would have enjoyed the concert.

A. hadn’t B. didn’t have had

C. hadn’t had D. hadn’t have

38.He insisted that we all _____ in his office at one o’clock.

A. be B. to be

C. would be D. shall be

39.Helen couldn’t go to France after all. That’s too bad. I’m sure she would have enjoyed it if _____.

A. she’s gone B. she’ll go

C. she’d gone D. she’d go

专项练习2:

1.His doctor suggested that he ______ a short leave of absence.

A.will take B.would take C.take D.took

2.The job would require that ______ at 7 o'clock every morning.

A.he will be at the factory B.he be at the factory

C.he was at the factory D.he has been at the factory

3.Your advice that she ______ till next week is reasonable.

A.will wait B.is going to wait C.waits D.wait

4.The housemaster was strict.He requested that we ______ television on week nights.

A.not watch B.must not to watch

C.not be watching D.have not watched

5.It is necessary that a worker ______ his work on time.

A.accomplishes B.can accomplish

C.accomplish D.has accomplished

6.It is important that he ______ his decision before Friday.

A.will make B.makes C.make D.must make

7.You look so tired. It's time you ______ .

A.go to sleep B.went to sleep

C.go to bed D.went to bed

8.I'd rather you ______ anything about it for the time being.

A.do B.didn't do C.don't D.didn't

9.But for water,it ______ impossible to live in the desert.

A.is B.was C.were D.wouldn't be

10. ______ it______ for your help,I couldn't have made any progress.

A.Had;not been B.Should;not been

C.Did;not been D.Not;be

11.Long ______ the Party!

A.lives B.live C.will live D.should live

12.Mary insisted that Tom ______ her the ring back.

A.gives B.give C.given D.have given

13.My suggestion was that the meeting ______ off till next week.

A.to put B.be put

C.should put D.be putting

14.Mother suggested that I ______ my homework first before watching TV.

A.did B.do C.shall do D.have done

15.He insisted that nothing ______ till he arrived.

A.must be started B.ought to be started

C.could be started D.should be started

16.Tom suggests that Ann ______ the house.

A.can sell B.sells C.sell D.sold

17.It's better that he ______ it from you.

A.'ll hear B.hears C.should hear D.heard

18.It was necessary that he ______ about what had happened.

A.be told B.was told C.should tell D.tell

19.It's astonishing that she ______ sad at news that it has nothing to do with her.

A.felt B.should feel C.'ll feel D.would feel

20.It was strange that we ______ short of water in the country where it was always raining.

A.are B.be C.should be D.both B and C

21.It is strange that she ______ marry such an ugly man.

A.would B.should C.shall D.must

22.It's not right that the meeting ______ off till tomorrow.

A.must be put B.must put C.will be put D.be put

23.It was impossible that he ______ the train, for he had started out very early.

A.could have missed B.must have missed

C.should have missed D.should miss

24.It's a pity that he ______ such a good chance.

A.should miss B.should have missed C.has missed D.all the above

25.He tried to find some excuse for the debt, but I insisted that he ______ it off at once.

A.must pay B.ought to pay C.paid D.pay

26.Mr. Ford insisted that he ______ right, though the others didn't think so.

A.should do B.should have done C.had done D.did

27.His pale face suggested that he ______ the sad news.

A.should be told B.should have been told

C.was told D.had been told

28.He suggested that we ______ here at once.

A.should leave B.must leave C.left D.ought to leave

29.My order is that everyone ______ their own work in time.

A.must complete B.completed C.completes D.complete

30.We've made the decision that we ______ at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning.

A.will gather B.are about to gather

C.would gather D.should gather

31.----I'll be waiting for you at home.

---- ______ I were busy and couldn't come?

A.What if B.What when C. How if D.How when

32.After he was praised for what he had done, he said,“I ______ even better under harder conditions. ”

A.would do B.would have done C.did D.had done

33.It has been raining for a day, but even though it ______ , we ______ there by tomorrow.

A.hadn't rained, couldn't get B.hadn't rained, can't get

C.didn't rain, couldn't get D.didn't rain, can't get

34.We could not have succeeded ______ your help.

A.but for B.without

C.if it had not been for D.all the above

35.I dare say he is not your true friend, because a true friend ______ differently when you were in trouble.

A.acted B.had acted C.would act D.would have acted

专项练习1:

 

1—5 BBDAD 6—10 DDCAD 11—15 CDCAA 16—20 ACAAD

21—25 DBCCC 26—30 DCCCD 31—35 DDCCB 36—39 DCAC

解析:

1.wish后面用虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反用过去完成时。

2.条件句表示与过去事实相反,主句用过去将来完成时,从句用过去完成时。

3.as if后面如果表示真实情况就不用虚拟。

4.It is important that是主语从句的虚拟语气,从句用sb. should do的形式。

5.as if后面是真实情况,不虚拟。

6.lain是lie的过去分词,表示“躺”。

7.could have done表示“本来可以”。

8.与将来相反的虚拟语气,主句用过去将来时。

9.as if表示不可能发生的事情时用虚拟语气。

10.but for表示“要不是……的话”,通常与虚拟语气搭配使用。

11.in advance表示“事先”,表示与过去事实相反的虚拟语气。

12.wish的宾语从句表示发生在将来的愿望用过去将来时。

13.but的并列句表示真实情况,不用虚拟语气。

14.for fear that后面的状语从句用sb. should do的形式。

15.表示与过去事实相反,主句用过去将来完成时,从句用过去完成时。

16.suggest后面的宾语从句用sb. should do的形式。

17.suggest后面的从句用sb. should do的形式,should可以省略。

18.表示与过去事实相反,从句用过去完成时。

19.would rather的宾语从句用sb. did的形式。

20.It is time后面的定语从句用sb. did的形式。

21.第一个had是过去完成时,第二个had表示“有”。

22.would have done是过去将来完成时,表示与过去相反的虚拟语气。

23.这是虚拟语气的倒装形式,把if去掉,助动词提前。

24.suggest后面的从句用sb. should do的形式,should可以省略。

25.表示与过去事实相反,主句用过去将来完成时。

26.在虚拟语气中,不管什么人称,be动词都要用were的形式。

27.表示与过去事实相反,从句用过去完成时。

28.require后面的从句用sb. should do的形式,should可以省略。

29.It is strange that是主语从句的虚拟语气,从句用sb. should do的形式。

30.had I known是与过去相反的虚拟语气的倒装形式。

31.as if表示不可能发生的事情时用虚拟语气。

32.第一个had是过去完成时,第二个had表示“有”。

33.otherwise经常可以搭配虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反。

34.当insist表示“坚持认为”时不用虚拟形式。

35.wish后面用虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反用过去完成时。

36.but的并列句表示真实情况,不用虚拟语气。

37.wish后面用虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反用过去完成时。

38.当insist表示“坚持要求”时从句用虚拟形式。

39.表示与过去事实相反,从句用过去完成时。

专项练习2: 参考答案:

1.C 2.B 3.D 4.A 5.C

6.C 7.D 8.B 9.D 10.A

11.B 12.B 13.B 14.B

15. D  insist作“要求别人做某事”解,其宾语从句用should型虚拟语气。

16. C  这种should型虚拟语气,有时可将should省略,因此,C项的sell不能有人称变化。

17.C  本句话有“要求”的意思,故选C。

 

18. A  C、D为主动,在此不妥。

19. B  选B表示了说话人带有一种十分惊讶的感情,选A项与she的人称不相一致,是错的。参见本章语法说明。

20. D  

21.B  should带有感情色彩。

22.D  本句带有要求之意,故从句谓语用should型虚拟语气。D项中的should被省略。

23.C  本句带有惊讶之意,故从句须用should型虚拟语气。但由于是过去的事情所产生的惊讶,所以用should+不定式完成式。

24.D  如选A,这表达了说话人对将来的事所发出的感叹,选B则是对已经过去的事情的感叹。选C则是一个直陈语气,即说话人对此并不一定感到十分惋惜,而是对此事的陈述。

25.D  insist在作“坚持要求别人做某事”时,需要用should型虚拟语气,should也可以省略。

26.C  insist在作“坚持自己的观点、看法等”解时,不需要用虚拟语气,所以A、B两项用在此处不当。D项时态不准确,故也应排除。

27.D  suggest作建议解时,后接了should型虚拟语气,但在本句中作“表明”解,这时不用虚拟语气,A、B两项都应排除,C项时态不当。

28.A  在本句中suggest作“建议”解,故选A。

29.D  “建议”、“命令”、“要求”等动词的名词形式做主语时,其表语从句也须用should型虚拟语气,本句中的should被省略。

30.D  “建议”、“命令”、“要求”等动词的名词形式做主语时,后接同位语从句时也须should型虚拟语气。

31.A  What if…?常用于省略疑问句,既可以用于虚拟语气,也可用于直陈语气。本句不省略的形式为What would you do if。

32.B  本句的under引出一个非真实的条件,当然也可以是真实条件。根据上下文,应理解为与过去事实相反,故其谓语动词用would have done。

33.B  even though=even if意为“即使”。它同if一样可以引出一个真实的让步从句,也可以引出一个非真实的让步从句。根据上文,even though是一个非真实的与过去事实相反的让步从句。而主句we can't get there却是一个真实的情况。

34.D   

35.D  从全句的意思分析,a true friend-differently实际上是指一种假设,而when引导的从句又告诉我们,这是一个与过去事实相反的假设,故用would have acted。

高中英语语法必修课:虚拟语气用法归纳

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 42 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:34 • 来自相关话题

高中英语语法必修课:虚拟语气用法归纳 语气 (mood)是一种动词形式,用以表示说话者的意图或态度。英语中的语气有三种:陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。 直陈语气(indicative mood),表示 ...查看全部
3.jpg

高中英语语法必修课:虚拟语气用法归纳

语气 (mood)是一种动词形式,用以表示说话者的意图或态度。英语中的语气有三种:陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。

直陈语气(indicative mood),表示所说的话是事实。

祈使语气 (imperative mood),表示所说的话是请求或命令。

虚拟语气(subjunctive mood),表示说的话不是事实,或者是不可能发生的情况,而是一种愿望、建议或与事实相反的假设等。

一. 虚拟语气在条件句中的应用

学习虚拟语气在条件句中的用法之前我们必须清楚条件句的种类:条件句有真实条件句与非真实条件句(或称虚拟条件句)两种。真实条件句所表的假设是可能发生或实现的,句中的条件从句与结果主句都用陈述语气。

如:

If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, I will go for a picnic. 假若明天不下雨,我就去野餐。

Oil floats if you pour it on water. 你如把油倒在水里,油就浮起来。

虚拟条件句所表的假设则是不可能或不大可能发生或实现的,句中的条件从句与结果主句皆须用虚拟语气。

124.png

1. 与现在事实相反的虚拟条件句,条件从句的谓语用动词的过去式 (be的过去式用were), 主句的谓语用should (would, might, could)+动词原形。

如:

If it were not raining, we should go for a picnic.如果现在不下雨的话,我们就出去野餐了。

(事实是:天在下雨,我们不能出去野餐。表示愿望。)

If he came here, he might be able to help you. 如果他来这,他就能够帮助你了。

(事实是:他没来这,他不可能帮助你。表示对他的良好印象。)

2. 与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句,条件从句的谓语用had+过去分词,主句的谓语用should ( would, might, could)+ have +过去分词。

如: She would have gone to the party if she had been invited.

要是当初她被邀请的话,她就会去参加这次聚会了。

(事实是:当时没有人邀请她,因此,她没有来参加聚会。表示后悔。)

If she hadn't called me, I would have overslept this morning.

今天早上,她要是不叫我的话,我就会睡过头了。

(事实是:她今天早上叫我了,我没有睡过头。表示感激。)

3. 与将来事实可能相反的虚拟条件句,条件从句的谓语用动词的过去式(be的过去式用were); should+动词原形;were to+动词原形,主句用should (would, might, could)+动词原形。

如: If I were to be twenty years old next year, I would take the course of French.

明年我要是二十岁,我就会学法语。

(事实是:我现在已经老了,明年我学不了法语了。)

If it should fail, I would try again.要是失败了,我会再试一次。

(事实是:有可能失败,可我会再试。表示未知。)

虚拟过去式有时并不表示“不大可能实现的假设”,而是表示一种希望或不希望发生的动作。

如: If we caught the early train, we’d get there by lunch time.

假如我们赶上早班火车,到午饭时间我们就会到达那里了。(表希望)

If we missed the train, we should have to wait an hour at the station.

假如我们赶不上这班火车,我们就得在车站等一小时。(表不希望)

4. 混合型的条件句

当条件从句与主句所表的时间不一致时,虚拟语气的形式应作相应的调整。主句和从句的谓语动词并不相互呼应,这种条件句叫混合条件句。较多见的混合型条件句是从句用过去完成时(指过去行为),而主句用一般时(指目前状态)。

He would pass the test if he had taken my advice.如果他听了我的劝告,他现在会通过考试。

If I had spoken to him yesterday, I should know what to do now.

假如昨天我对他说了,现在我就知道该怎么办了。

You would be much better now if you had taken my advice.

假如你接受了我的意见,你现在就会好得多。

如条件从句用if I were...,主句则可用表任何时间的虚拟形式。

如: If I were not busy, I would have come.

假如我不忙,我就会去了。(were表过去)

If I were you, I would go.

假如我是你,我会去的。(were表现在)

二. 连词if的省略

如果虚拟条件句的谓语部分有were,had和should时,可省略if,把were,had和should放到从句主语前面去,多见于书面语。

Had you not helped me, I should have failed.要是没有你的帮助,我就失败了。

Were you in my position, you would do the same. 假如你处在我的地位,你也会这样干的。

Should they attack us, we’ll wipe them out completely.

假如他们进攻我们,我们就把他们彻底消灭干净。

三. 含蓄条件句

虚拟条件句中的条件从句有时不表出来,只暗含在上下文中,这种句子叫做含蓄条件句。含蓄条件句大体有三种情况。

1) 条件暗含在短语中。

如: But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the experiment.

如果没有你的帮助,我们的实验是不会成功的。(暗含在分词短词but for your help)

What would I have done without you? 如没有你,我会怎么办呢?(条件暗含在介词短语without you 中)

It would be easier to do it this way. 这样做会比较容易。

(条件暗含在不定式短语 to do it this way中)

This same thing, happening in wartime, amount to disaster.

同样的事,如发生在战时,就会酿成大祸。(条件暗含在分词短语happening in wartime 中)

He must have the strength of a hippopotamus, or he never could have vanquished that great beast. 他一定是力大如河马,否则他绝不会击败那只庞大的野兽。(暗含条件是连词or)

Alone, he would have been terrified. 如是单独一人,他是会感到害怕的。(暗含条件是alone)

2) 条件暗含在上下文中。

如: You might stay here forever. 你可以永远待在这儿。(可能暗含if you wanted to)

We would have succeeded. 我们本来是会成功的。(可能暗含if we had kept trying)

Your reputation would be ruined. 你的名誉会败坏的。(可能暗含 if you should accept it)

3) 在不少情况下,虚拟式已变成习惯说法,很难找出其暗含的条件。

如: You wouldn’t know. 你不会知道。

I would like to come. 我愿意来。

四. 不用if引导的条件从句

虚拟条件句中的条件从句除用if引外,还可用when, unless, lest, suppose, as if, for fear, in case, on condition 等词语来引导。

如: The peasants prepared to feed the city when it should be freed.

农民已准备在这座城市解放后供给粮食。

Lest you should not have heard all, I shall begin at the beginning.

我怕你没有听全,所以我再从头开始讲一遍。

Unless I were well, I wouldn’t be at school. 除非我好了,否则我不会上学。

Suppose you were given a chance to study in America , would you accept?

假如给你一个到美国学习的机会,你会接受吗?(suppose 或 supposing =what if)

Supposing it were so?(=Supposing it were so,what would happen?)

要是这样的话,会怎么样呢?

He can use the bicycle on condition that he should return it tomorrow.

如果明天能还回来,他就可以借用这辆自行车。

In case I forget , please remind me of my promise 如果我忘了,请提醒我的诺言。

Susan is walking slowly ,as if she were tired. 苏珊走得很慢,就像是累了似的。

与if一样,上述词语所引导的条件从句亦可用直陈语气,表可能实现或发生的事。

高考英语语法提升:过去完成时专项练习题

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 38 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:31 • 来自相关话题

高考英语语法提升:过去完成时专项练习题 Ⅰ. Multiple Choices. 1.I lost the dictionary I ________. A.have bought B.bought C ...查看全部
4.jpg

高考英语语法提升:过去完成时专项练习题

Ⅰ. Multiple Choices.
1.I lost the dictionary I ________.
A.have bought B.bought C.had bought D.had been bought
2.The train had gone when my brother _______ at the station.
A.have arrived B.arrived C.had arrived D.am arriving
3. Mary _______ of visiting her grandmother, but the bad weather made her change her mind.
A.has thought B.thought C.had thought D.had been thought
4.------Did you meet Tom at the airport? ------No,he _______ by the time I ______ there.
A.has left;got B.had left;arrived C.left;arrived D.left;had got
5.-------Why didn’t Tom attend the meeting yesterday? -------He __________ Beijing.
A.has gone to B.had gone to C.went to D.had been to
6.-------I _______ to come to help you. ------But you didn’t come.
A.have meant B.had meant C.meant D.will mean
7.Finally one of my friends _______ by Beijing University,for which she ___ five times
A.were admitted; had tried B.was admitted; had tried C.were admitted; has tried D.was admitted; tried
8.------I have bought you the books you want. ------Oh,good,I _______ afraid you had forgotten.
A.was B.am C.had been D.have been
9.We _________ four thousand new words by the end of last year.
A.had learned B.have learned C.learned D.will have learned
10.Helen _______her keys in the office so she had to wait until her husband ______home.
A.has left;comes B.left;had come C.had left;came D.had left;would come
11. My father _________ to the hospital when I hurried home.
A. had gone B. went C. had been taken D. had been sent
12. ----- Jim, ________ you _________ your homework?
----- Yes, of course, but I ________ it late bed time.
A. do do; finished B. did do; had finished C. have done; had finished D. have done; finished
13. You ____ football after school. Why not go home and do your homework first?
A. always played B. are always playing C. have always played D. have always been playing
es
14. Ever since Picasso’s painting went on exhibit, there ____ large crowds at the museum every day.
A. is B. has been C. have been D. had been
15. ---What do you think of my suggestion? --- Sorry. What’s that? I _____ about something else.
A. was thinking B. thought C. am thinking D. had thought
Ⅱ. Fill in the blanks according to the meanings of the sentences by using tenses of the verbs.
1. How many English songs ___________ she __________ (learn) by the end of last month?、
2. Hardly _______ I ______ (get) on the bus when it started to move
3. He __________________(read) the book before he was ten years old.
4. She said she ___________________ (see) the film before.
5. Our English teacher _________________ (teach) English in Guangxi for ten years before he came to No.113 Middle School.
6. By the end of last month, they _________________(complete)the bridge .
7. No sooner ________ I _______ (go) out than he came to see me.
89. The classroom _______________ (clean) before we ___________ (get) there yesterday.
10. ________ the boy ___________ (finish) his homework before you saw him?
11. When we got to the station, the train _____________ already _____________. (leave)
12. The book __________ by the end of last month. (finish)
13. When I got back to the shop , my bag _________________ (take) away by someone else.
14. When I arrived at the cinema, the film _________________ (be )on for ten minutes.
15. ---What’s that terrible noise?
---The neighbors ______ (prepare) for a party.
16. The mayor of Beijing says that all construction work for the Beijing Olympics ______ ( complete) by 2006.
17. The teacher, with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, ______ (visit) a museum when the earthquake struck.
18. ---Mr. Johnson didn’t turn up at the meeting yesterday morning, did he?
--- No. We __________ (wait) till twelve o’clock. A whole morning was wasted.
19. ---Why haven’t you asked her to come here?
---She _______ (do) an important experiment when I found her and she ________ (not, finish) it.
答案:
Keys:
Ⅰ. 1-5 CBCBB 6-10 BBAAC 11-15. DDBCA
Ⅱ. 1. had learnt 2. had got 3. had read 4. had seen 5. had taught 6. had completed 7. had gone 8. had gone 9. had been cleaned, got 10. Had finished 11. had left 12. had been finished 13. had been taken 14. had been on 15. are preparing 16. will have been completed 17. was visiting 18. were waiting 19. was doing, hasn’t finished

补充练习:
一、选择填空:
1 We __ four thousand new words by the end of last year.  
A had learned     B have learned      C learned
 2 Helen ____ her keys in the office so she had to wait until her husband ___home.(NMET’96)  
A has left; comes   B left;had come   C had left;came
3 I lost the book I ____.
A have bought    B bought     C had bought  
4 The bus had gone when I ____ at the bus stop.
A have arrived     B arrived     C had arrived
5 Tom ____ of visiting his grandmother, but the bad weather made him change his mind.  
 A has thought    B thought      C had thought
6 —Did you meet Tom at the airport?
   —No,he ___ by the time I ___ there.
A.has left; got    B had left;arrived    C left;had got
7—Why didn’t Tom attend the meeting yesterday?
   —He ___ Beijing.
A.has gone to B had gone to C went to
8 Finally Mary was admitted by Beijing University, for which she ___ five times.
A had tried     B tried  C has tried  
9 —I have bought you the books you want.  
—Oh,good. I __ afraid you had forgotten.
二、用括号中所给单词的适当形式填空:
1 How many English songs _________she ______ (learn) by the end of last month?
2 By the time my parents reached home yesterday, I _______________ dinner already. (cook)
3 He ____________ to play the piano before he was ten years old. (learn)
4 She said she _________ the film before. (see)
5 Our English teacher _______________ (teach) English in Guangxi for ten years before he came to No.113 Middle School.
6 By the end of last month, they _______________ the bridge. (complete)
7 What _____ Lord Kelvin ______ by the time he was ten? (do)
8 He asked where I ____________ (go) during the summer vacation.
9 The classroom ____________ (clean) before we ______ (get) there yesterday.
10 _____ the boy ______________ his homework before you saw him? (finish)
11 When we got to the station, the train ________ already _______. (leave)
12 We ______________ the book by the end of last month. (finish)
13 When I got back to the shop , someone else _____________ (take) my bag away.
14 When I arrived at the cinema, the film _____________ (be on) for ten minutes.
15 Jack ___________ in Egypt for eight years before he moved to Guangzhou. (live)
16 He didn’t asked me to speak at the meeting, because I _____ already ______ (refuse) to do it.
17 Last week I didn’t return the book to the library, because I ______________ (not finish) it.
18 Tom said that he ________________ (visit) his Japanese friends the day before.
19 Mrs. Smith said she ________ to Xi’an twice. (be)
20 She asked me if I __________ (read) the story .

高中英语语法必修课:过去完成时时态对比

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 91 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:30 • 来自相关话题

高中英语语法必修课:过去完成时时态对比 一、过去完成时与现在完成时的区别 现在完成时表示的动作发生在过去,以现在的时间为基点,但侧重对现在产生的结果或造成的影响,与现在有关,其结构为“助动词 have (has) + ...查看全部
365.jpg

高中英语语法必修课:过去完成时时态对比

一、过去完成时与现在完成时的区别
现在完成时表示的动作发生在过去,以现在的时间为基点,但侧重对现在产生的结果或造成的影响,与现在有关,其结构为“助动词 have (has) + 过去分词”;过去完成时则是一个相对的时态,已过去时间为基点,它所表示的动作不仅发生在过去,更强调“过去的过去”,只有和过去某时或某动作相比较时,才用到它。
比较:I have learned 1000 English words so far.到目前为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。
I had learned 1000 English words till then.到那时为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。
— I'm sorry to keep you waiting. 对不起,让你久等了。
— Oh, not at all. I have been here only a few minutes.没什么,我只等了几分钟。(“等”的动作从过去某一时间点持续到现在)
二、过去完成时与一般过去时的区别
虽然这两种时态都表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,但在使用时应注意以下几点:
1. 时间状语不同:过去完成时在时间上强调“过去的过去”;而一般过去时只强调过去某一特定的时间。
比较:They had arrived at the station by ten yesterday.
They arrived at the station at ten yesterday.
2. 在没有明确的过去时间状语作标志时,谓语动词动作发生的时间先后须依据上下文来判断:先发生的用过去完成时,后发生的则用一般过去时。
She was very happy. Her whole family were pleased with her, too. She had just won the first in the composition competition.
3. 当两个或两个以上接连发生的动作用 and 或 but 连接时,按时间顺序,只需用一般过去时来代替过去完成时;另外,在 before , after , as soon as 引导的从句中,由于这些连词本身已经表示出时间的先后,因此也可以用过去时来代替过去完成时。
He entered the room, turned on the light and read an evening paper.

高中英语语法必修课:过去完成时用法归纳

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 40 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:28 • 来自相关话题

高中英语语法必修课:过去完成时用法归纳 过去完成时(past perfect)表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。 它表示句子中描述的动作发生在“过去的过去”。 基本结构:主语+had+过去分词 ...查看全部
431.jpg

高中英语语法必修课:过去完成时用法归纳

过去完成时(past perfect)表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。
它表示句子中描述的动作发生在“过去的过去”。
基本结构:主语+had+过去分词(done)
①肯定句:主语+had+过去分词+其他.
②否定句:主语+had+not+过去分词+其他.
③一般疑问句:Had+主语+过去分词+其他?
肯定回答:Yes,主语+had.
否定回答:No,主语+had not .
④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词或词组+一般疑问句(Had+主语+过去分词+其他)?
基本用法
(1)表示在过去某一时刻或动作以前完成了的动作,也可以说过去的时间关于过去的动作。即“过去的过去”。可以用by, before等介词短语或一个时间状语从句来表示,也可以用一个表示过去的动作来表示,还可能通过上下文来表示。
例如: By nine o’clock last night, we had got 200 pictures from the spaceship.
到昨晚9点钟,我们已经收到200 张飞船发来的图片。
(2)表示由过去的某一时刻开始,一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态,常和for, since构成的时间状语连用。
例如: I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came.
当车来的时候,我在车站已等了20分钟。
He said he had worked in that factory since 1949.
他说自从1949年以来他就在那家工厂工作。
(3)叙述过去发生的事情,在已叙述了过去发生的事情后,反过来追述或补述以前发生的动作时,常使用过去完成时。
例如: Mr. Smith died yesterday. He had been a good friend of mine.
史密斯先生昨天去世了。他以前是我的好友。
I didn’t know a thing about the verbs, for I had not studied my lesson.
我对动词一无所知,因为我没有好好学习功课。
(4)在含有定语从句的主从复合句中,如果叙述的是过去的事,先发生的动作常用过去完成时。
例如: I returned the book that I had borrowed.
我已归还了我借的书。
She found the key that she had lost.
她丢失的钥匙找到了。
(5)过去完成时常常用在told,said,knew,heard,thought等动词后的宾语从句(或间接引语)中,这时从句中的动作发生在主句表示的过去的动作之前。
例如: He said that he had known her well.
他说他很熟悉她。
I thought I had sent the letter a week before.
我认为我一星期前就把信寄出去了。
(6) 状语从句:在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在前,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。
如when,before,after,as soon as,till/until引导的
例如: When I woke up, it had already stopped raining.
我醒来时雨已停了。
She didn’t go to bed until she had finished her work.
她直到把工作做完之后才睡觉。
注意:如果两个动作紧接着发生,则常常不用过去完成时,特别是在包含before和after的复合句中,因为 这 时从句的动作和主句的动作发生的先后顺序已经非常明确,这时可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。
例如: After he arrived in England, Marx worked hard to improve his English.
马克思到达英格兰之后,努力提高他的英语水平。
(7)动词think, want, hope, mean, plan, intend等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现的想法,希望,打算或意图等。
例如: They had wanted to help but could not get there in time.
他们本来打算去帮忙,但没有及时赶到那里。
We had hoped to be able to come and see you .
我们本来希望能来看看你。
(8)过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, It was the first (second, etc)
time (that)…等固定句型中。
例如: Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him.
他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了他。
No sooner had he arrived than he went away again
他刚到就又走了。
It was the third time that he had been out of work that year.
这是他那一年第三次失业了。
时间状语
before,when,after,by+,until, once,had no sooner……than
过去完成时-语法判定
1. 由时间状语来判定
一般说来,各种时态都有特定的时间状语。与过去完成时连用的时间状语有:
( 1 ) by + 过去的时间点。如:
I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night.
( 2 ) by the end of + 过去的时间点。如:
We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term.
( 3 ) before + 过去的时间点。如:
They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday.
2. 由“过去的过去”来判定。
过去完成时表示“过去的过去”,是指过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作,即动作有先后关系,动作在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时。这种用法常出现在:
( 1 )宾语从句中
当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的动作先于主句的动作时,从句要用过去完成时。在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。如:
She said that she had seen the film before.
( 2 )状语从句中
在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中,主、从句的动作发生有先后关系,动作在前的,要用过去完成时,动作在后的要用一般过去时。如:
After he had finished his homework, he went to bed.
注意: before, after 引导的时间状语从句中,由于 before 和 after 本身已表达了动作的先后关系,若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连,则主、从句都用一般过去时。如:
After he closed the door, he left the classroom.
(3)表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"
We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.
3. 根据上、下文来判定。
I met Wang Tao in the street yesterday. We hadn't seen each other since he went to Beijing.

高中英语语法练习:直接引语和间接引语的模拟练习题

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 36 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:23 • 来自相关话题

高中英语语法练习:直接引语和间接引语的模拟练习题 直接引语和间接引语练习 I. 请选出正确的答案: 1. Where was Alice’s sister? I don’t know where ___ ...查看全部
高中英语2.jpg

高中英语语法练习:直接引语和间接引语的模拟练习题

直接引语和间接引语练习
I. 请选出正确的答案:
1. Where was Alice’s sister? I don’t know where ________.
A. was Alice’s sister    B. Alice’s sister was
C. is Alice’s sister     D. Alice’s sister is
2. What did he say? I don’t know what _________.
A. did he say   B. he says   C. he has said  D. he said
3. I don’t know ___________.
A. the reason why can be   B. why the reason may be
C. what the reason can be   D. what the reason may be
4. I wonder ___________ .which of the following is not the right choice?
A. whether she will be fit for the job or not
B. whether or not she will be fit for the job
C. if she will be fit for the job
D. what she will be fit for the job
5. Is Mr. Wu from Beijing? I don’t know ________.
A. where does he come from   B. from where does he come
C. which city he comes from  D. what city he comes from
6. Can you make sure ___________?
A. that he will come here today  B. when he will come here today
C. will he come here today     D. whether will he come here today
7. Do you happen to know ________?
A. where is her address   B. in which place is her address
C. what her address is    D. the place her address is
8. Excuse me, but can you tell me ___________?
A. where can I get to the library B. where I can get to the library
C. how can I get to the library  D. how I can get to the library
9. John asked me _______ to visit his uncle’s farm with him.
A. how would I like    B. if or not would I like
C. whether I would like   D. which I would like
10. I’d like to know ________ Chinese.
A. when he began to learn  B. when did he begin to learn
C. when did he begin learning D. for how long he began to learn
11. He asked _____.
A. where is the railway station.  B. where the railway station is
C. where was the railway station  D. where the railway station was
12. The inspector said, “This machine is the worst I’ve ever seen.”
A. The inspector said that machine was the worst I’d ever seen.
B. The inspector said that machine was the worst I’ve ever seen.
C. The inspector said that machine was the worst he ever saw.
D. The inspector said that that machine was the worst he had ever seen.
13. She told me this morning _____.
A. how had the accident happened B. how did the accident happened
C. how happened the accident  D. how the accident had happened
14. The policeman asked him _____.
A. what was his name   B. what his name was
C. which was his name   D. who was his name
15. He told us he _____ a concert _____ .
A. had attended ... three days before B. attended ... three days ago
C. would attend ... since three days D. was attending ... for three days
16. The biology teacher said, “The leaves come out in spring.”
A. The biology teacher said that the leaves come out in spring.
B. The biology teacher said that the leaves came out in spring.
C. The biology teacher said that the leaves would come out in spring.
D. The biology teacher said that the leaves should come out in spring.
17. Do you know _____
A. what the population of China is      B. how much is the population of China
C. what is the population of China D. how many the population of china is
18. The teacher asked, “Where are you going, John”
A. The teacher asked where was John going
B. The teacher asked him where John was going.
C. The teacher asked John where he was going.
D. The teacher asked John where he went.
19. “My sister is coming here with us tonight.” Ann said.
A. Ann said that her sister is coming here with us tonight.
B. Ann said that her sister was coming here with them tonight.
C. Ann said that her sister was coming there that night.
D. Ann said that her sister was going there with them that night.
20. The young policeman told the boys _____ .
A. never to play with fire  B. not to play the fire
C. not to play fire   D. don’t play with the fire
II. 将下列句子变为间接引语:
1. “You should be more careful next time,” his father said to him.
2. Mr. Wang said, “I will leave for Shanghai on business next month, children.”
3. “I haven’t heard from my parents these days,” said Mary.
4. The geography teacher said to us, “The moon moves around the earth and the earth goes round the sun.”
5. She said to him, “It’s time that you left here.”
6. Zhang Hong said to me, “Doctor Wang passed away in 1948.”
7. John said to his parents, “I had learned 500 Chinese words by the end
of last term.”
8. The history teacher said to them, “The Chinese Communist Party was founded on July 1st , 1921.”
9. He said, “Are you a student?”
10. “Have you anything interesting I can read, George?” she said.
11. “She’s here to ask for help, isn’t she?” he asked.
12. “Where are you going?” the father asked his son.
13. “Are you sorry for what you have done?” the mother asked the naughty boy.
14. She said, “Did you meet this man at the station two hours ago, Mr. Li?”
15. “Write your names on your papers first,” the teacher said to us.
16. “Please come here again tomorrow,” her friend said to her.
17. “Let me pack the parcel for you,” he said.
18. “Don’t make so much noise in class, boys and girls,” said the teacher.
19. “What a lovely day it is!”
20. “Happy New Year to you!” he said.
III. 把下列句子变为直接引语:
1. I told him that I had lost my money and that I would find it.
2. She asked whether I would be free the next day or not.
3. I asked her where she was going and what she was going to do the next day.
4. His father told him not to climb that high tree in his new coat.
5. The stranger asked me what my name was.
6. She said that she would finish her work the next day.
7. The teacher asked if we could do it.
8. The commander ordered his men not to cross the river before dawn.
9. My teacher asked whether he was coming.
10. The scientist asked me what I was doing.
IV.将所给直接引语变为间接引语,每空一词:
1. “I never eat meat.” he said.
He said that ______ never ______ meat.
2. “I’ve found my wallet.” he said to me.
He ______ me that he ______ ______ ______ wallet.
3. “I took it home with me.” she said.
She said that ______ ______ _______ it home with her.
4. The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and goes down in the west.”
The teacher said that the sun ______ in the east and ______ down in the west.
5. “I met her yesterday.” he said to me.
He ______ me that he ______ met the day ______.
6. “You must come here before five.” he said.
He said that I ______ to go ______ before five.
7. “I bought the house 10 years ago.” he said.
He said that he _______ bought the house 10 years _______.
8. “Did you see her last week?” he said.
He ______ ______ I had seen her the week _______.
9. He said, “You can sit here, Jim.”
He ______ Jim that he ______ sit there
10. He asked, “How did you find it, mother?”
He asked her mother ______ ______ ______ found it.
11. “Where have you been these days?” he asked.
He asked me _______ _______ _______been _______ days.
12. “Do you know where she lives?” he asked.
He asked ______ ______ knew where she ______.
13. “Stop making so much noise, children.” he said.
He ______ the children ______ ______ making so much noise.
14. “Don’t tell him the news.” she said.
She told me _______ ______ ______ him the news.
15. “Are you intested in this?” he said.
He ______ ______ I was interestd in ______.

直接引语和间接引语练习答案
I. 1~5  B D C D C      6~10  A C D C A
11~15 DDDBA    16~20 AACDA
II. 1. His father told him that he should be more careful the next time.
2. Mr. Wang told the children that he would leave for Shanghai on business the next month.
3. Mary said that she hadn’t heard from her parents those days.
4. The geography teacher told us that the moon moves around the earth and the earth goes round the sun.
5. She told him that it was time that he left there.
6. Zhang Hong told me that Doctor Wang passed away in 1948.
7. John told his parents that he had learned 500 Chinese words by the end of last term.
8. The history teacher told them that the Chinese Communist Party was founded on July 1st, 1921.
9. He asked whether I was a student.
10. She asked George if he had anything interesting she could read.
11. He asked whether she was there to ask for help or not.
12. The father asked his son where he was going.
13. The mother asked the naughty boy if he was sorry for what he had done.
14. She asked Mr. Li whether he had met that man at the station two hours before.
15. The teacher told us to write our names on our papers first.
16. Her friend asked her to go there again the next/ following day.
17. He offered to pack the parcel for me.
18. The teacher told the boys and girls not to make so much noise in class.
19. He/ She exclaimed that it was really a lovely day.20. He wished me a Happy New Year.
III. 1. I said to him, “I have lost my money . I will find it.”
2. She asked , “ You will be free tomorrow, won’t you?”
3. I asked her, “Where are you going and what are you going to do tomorrow?”
4. His father said, “Don’t climb this high tree in your new coat.”
5. The stranger asked, “ What’s your name?”
6. “I’ll finish my work tomorrow,” she said.
7. The teacher asked, “Can you do it ?”
8. The commander ordered his men, “Don’t cross the river before dawn.”
9. My teacher asked, “Is he coming?”
10.  The scientist asked me, “What are you doing?”
IV.【参考答案】
1. he, ate                                   2. told, had, found, his
3. she, had, taken                            4. rise, goes
5. told, had, before                           6. had, there
7. had, before                               8. asked, if [whether], before
9. told, could                               10. how, she, had
11. where, I, had, those                       12. if [whether], I, lived  
13. told, to, stop                             14. not, to, tell
15. asked, if [whether], that

高考英语语法提升:直接引语和间接引语难点分析

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 41 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:21 • 来自相关话题

高考英语语法提升:直接引语和间接引语难点分析 1.“Speak English more often in and out of class,” our English teacher said to us. Our ...查看全部
高中英语1.jpg

高考英语语法提升:直接引语和间接引语难点分析

1.“Speak English more often in and out of class,” our English teacher said to us.
Our English teacher suggested us to speak English more often in and out of class. (误)
Our English teacher told /asked us to speak English more often in and out of class. (正)
Our English teacher suggested that we(should)speak English more often in and out of class. (正)
简析:直接引语是祈使句,变为间接引语时,要将祈使句的动词原形变为带to的不定式,并在不定式的前面根据语气需要使用ask,tell,order等动词,其句型是:ask/tell/order someone to do sth.,但是suggest不能接不定式作宾补,只能接-ing形式或从句(从句用虚拟语气)作宾语。
2.“Don’t play football on the street,little boys,” the policeman said.
The policeman told the little boys did not play football on the street. (误)
The policeman told the little boys not to play football on the street. (正)
简析:如果直接引语是祈使句的否定式,变为间接引语时,要将其改为不定式的否定形式作宾补,不定式的否定形式是在不定式前面加not,而不是加do not,does not,did not等。
3.“Would you please do me the favor to carry the box upstairs?” the young woman said to me.
The young woman ordered me to carry the box upstairs for her. (误)
The young woman asked me to carry the box upstairs for her.(正)
简析:直接引语是一些表示请求、建议的疑问句,变为间接引语时, 也变为不定式作宾语补足语。需要注意的是应根据原句的语气选用恰当的动词。因为此处原来的疑问句用的是很客气的语气,改写后不宜用order。
4.“You clean the classroom after class today,Tom,” said the monitor.
The monitor said that Tom cleaned the classroom after class that day.(误)
The monitor told Tom to clean the classroom after class that day. (正)
简析:一般而言,祈使句是以动词原形开头的,但是如果说话人有意强调动作执行者,也可以在句首加上主语。我们在将其变为间接引语时不能将带有主语的祈使句与陈述句混淆起来。
5.“It’s a fine day. Let’s go to the country for a picnic,” Peter said to me.
Peter told me that it was a fine day and let us go to the country for a picnic. (误)
Peter said that it was a fine day and asked me to go to the country for a picnic with him. (正)
简析:当直接引语中有多种句子形式如陈述句、祈使句、疑问句等时,我们就要用不同的方式将各种句子进行转述。因为原句中直接引语前面部分是陈述句,故变为由that引导的宾语从句,后面部分是祈使句所以变为不定式作宾补。

高中英语语法必修:直接引语和间接引语用法归纳

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 36 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:19 • 来自相关话题

高中英语语法必修:直接引语和间接引语用法归纳 一、引述别人的话有两种方式:一是使用引号引出人家的原话,这叫做直接引语;一是用自己的话把人家的话转述出来,这叫做间接引语。 例如: John said, & ...查看全部
高中英语.jpg

高中英语语法必修:直接引语和间接引语用法归纳

一、引述别人的话有两种方式:一是使用引号引出人家的原话,这叫做直接引语;一是用自己的话把人家的话转述出来,这叫做间接引语。
例如:
John said, "I'm going to London with my father."
约翰说:"我要和父亲到伦敦去。"(引号内是直接引语)
John said that he was going to London with his father.
约翰说,他要和他父亲去伦敦。(宾语从句是间接引语)

二、由直接引语变为间接引语,分以下情况:
1、直接引语是陈述句时
间接引语为that引导的宾语从句(口语中that可以省略),主句的引述动词主要有say ,tell, repeat, explain, think等。
He said , "You are younger than I."-'He said (that ) I was younger than him.
2、直接引语是疑问句时
间接引语为陈述语序:主句的谓语动词say 改为ask,或改为wonder, do not know, want to know, be not sure, be puzzled等。
(1)一般疑问句或反意疑问句变为if (whether)引导的宾语从句。
She said, "Do you often come here to read newspapers?"
→She asked me if (或whether)I often went there to read newspapers.
She asked me , "You have seen the film, haven't you?"
→She asked me whether(或if )I had seen the film.
(2)选择疑问句变为whether….or 宾语从句。
I asked him, "Will you stay at home or go to a film tonight?"
→I asked him whether he would stay at home or go to a film that night.
(3)特殊疑问句变为由原来的疑问词引导的宾语从句。
He asked , "Where do you live?"
→He asked me where I lived.
3.直接引语是祈使句时
间接引语为不定式,作ask , tell, beg, order, warn, advise等动词的宾语补足语(don't 变为not ).
The teacher said to the boy, "Open the window."→The teacher told the boy to open the window.
His father said to him , "Don't leave the door open."→His father told him not to leave the door open.
[注意]
(1) 有些表示建议、提议、劝告或要求的祈使句,可以用suggest ,insist等动词加以转述。例如:
He said, "Let's go to the theatre."
→He suggested (our )going to the theatre.或He suggested that we(should) go to the theatre.
(2) "Would you mind opening the window?" he asked.
→He asked me to open the window.
"Why don't you take a walk after supper?" he asked .
→he advised me to take a walk after supper.
"Shall we listen to the music?" he asked.
→He suggested listening to the music.
4.直接引语是感叹句时
间接引语为what 或how 引导,也可以用that 引导。
She said, "What a lovely day it is !"
→She said what a lovely day it was .或She said that it was a lovely day.
5.如果主句谓语动词为各种现在时或一般将来时,则间接引语中的动词仍保持直接引语原来时态。如果主句谓语动词为过去时,间接引语中的动词时态按下列变化:
(1) 一般现在时变为一般过去时
(2) 现在进行时变为过去进行时
(3) 一般将来时变为过去将来时
(4) 现在完成时变为过去完成时
(5) 一般过去时变为过去完成时
(6) 过去完成时不变,仍为过去完成时
[注意]
(1) 如果直接引语是表示客观真理时,变为间接引语,一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如:
The teacher said "The earth goes round the sun."
→The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.
(2) 如果直接引语中有明确表示过时间的状语,变为间接引语时,一般过去时不改为过去完成时。如:
He said to me, "I was born in 1973."
→He told me that he was born in 1973.
(3)如果直接引语所述事实在当时和目前同样生效,变为间接宾语时,一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如:
He said, "I'm a boy, not a girl."
→He said that he is a boy ,not a girl.
(4)如果直接引语中的谓语动词表示一种反复出现或习惯动作,在变为间接引时,一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如:
The girl said, "I get up at six every morning."
→The girl said that she gets up at six every morning.
(5)如果直接引语中含有since, when, while 引导的表示过去时间的状语从句,在变为间接引语时,只改变主句中的谓语动词,从句的一般过去时则不变。如:
He said to me, "I have taught English since he came here ."
→He told me that he had taught English since he came here.
(6)如果直接引语中含有情态动词 must, need, had better以及情态动词的过去式could, might, should, would,在变为间接引语时,这些情态动词没有时态的改变。例如:
The teacher said to me . "You must pay more attention to your pronunciation."
→The teacher told me that I must (have to ) pay more attention to my pronunciation.
He said , "I could swim when I was only six ."
→He said that he could swim when he was only six.

6.代词等一般地应作用相应的变化,变化方法见下表。

指示代词

this……these
 
these……those
 
表示时间的词

now……then
 
today……that day
 
this week(month ,etc)……that week (month ,etc)
 
yesterday……the day before
 
last week(month ,etc)……the week(month ,etc) before
 
three days (a year ,etc) ago……three days (a year. etc) before
 
tomorrow……the next (following ) day   
 
next week (month ,etc)……the next (following ) week (month ,etc)
 
表地点的词

here……there
 
动词
bring……take
 
come……go

直接引语变间接引语面面观
一、如何变人称:将直接引语变间接引语时,常常弄不清人称变化。下面有一句顺口溜“一随主。二随宾,第三人称不更新”。“一随主”是指在直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰。从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化如:She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→She said her brother wanted to go with her.
“二随宾”是指直接引语变间接引语时,若从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称。或被第二人你所修饰。从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一致。如果引号外的主句没有宾语。也可以用第一人称,如:He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"→He asked Kate how her sister was then。
“第三人称不更新”是指直接引语变间接引语时。如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称或被第三人称所修饰从句中的人称一般不需要变化如:Mr Smith said。 "Jack is a good worker。"→Mr Smith said Jack was a good worker。
二、如何变时态:直接引语在改为间接引语时、时态需要做相应的调整。现在时它需改为过去时态;过去时态改为完成时;过去完成时则保留原来的时态。如1)She said. "I have lost a pen."→She said she had lost a pen2)She said. "We hope so."→She said they hoped so.3) She said. "He will go to see his friend。"→She said he would go to see his friend。但要注意在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一般不变化。
①直接引语是客观真理。"The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me. → The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。
②直接引语是过去进行时,时态不变。如:Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"→Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street。
③直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。如:Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980。" →Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980。
④直接引语如果是一般现在时。表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作,变间接引语,时态不变。如:He said, "I get up at six every morning。" →He said he gets up at six every morning。
⑤如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例:ought to, had better, used to)和已经是过去时的形式时,(例:could, should, would, might)不再变。如:Peter said. "You had better come have today。" →Peter said I had better go there that day。
三、如何变状语:直接引语变间接引语,状语变化有其内在规津,时间状语由“现在”改为“原来”(例:now变为then, yesterday。变为 the day before)地点状语,尤其表示方向性的,或用指示代词修饰的状语,由“此”改为“彼”(例:this 改为that),如:He said, "These books are mine." →He said those books were his.
四、如何变句型:①直接引语如果是陈述句,间接引语应改为由that引导的宾语从句。如:She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.
②直接引语如果是反意疑问句,选择疑问句或一般疑问句,间接引语应改为由whether或if引导的宾语从句.如:He said, "Can you swim, John?" →He asked John if he could swim."You have finished the homework, haven‘t you?" my mother asked. →My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework."Do you go to school by bus or by bike?" →He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike.
③直接引语如果是特殊问句,间接引语应该改为由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的宾语从句(宾语从句必须用陈述句语序)。She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"→ She asked me when they had their dinner.
④直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为"tell(ask, order, beg等) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如:"Don’t make any noise," she said to the children. →She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise. "Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.
⑤直接引语如果是以“Let‘s”开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,通常用“suggest +动句词(或从句)。”如:He said, "Let’s go to the film." →He suggested going to the film.或He suggested that they should go to see the film.

高中英语语法必修:名词性从句介绍及真题练习

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 37 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:18 • 来自相关话题

高中英语语法必修:名词性从句介绍及真题练习 名词性从句:在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句 (Noun Clauses)。 名词性从句在复合句中能担任:主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等。 名词性从 ...查看全部
243.jpg

高中英语语法必修:名词性从句介绍及真题练习

名词性从句:在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句 (Noun Clauses)。
名词性从句在复合句中能担任:主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等。
名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。
一、引导名词性从句的连接词
引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:
1、从属连词(5个):
(1)that无词义,在从句中不做成分,在宾语从句或表语从句中that有时可以省略
(2)whether,if 有词义,在从句中不做成分(whether,if均表示“是否”之意,表明从句内容的不确定性)不可以省略
(3)as if, as though (均表示“好像”,“似乎”之意)在从句中不做成分  
2、连接代词(9个):what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, which, whichever,有词义,在从句中做成分,不可以省略(who what which 在从句中做主语、宾语、其中what 指代没有范围的事物,which指代有范围的事物,表“选择哪一个”whom做宾语whose 做定语)
3、连接副词(7个):when, where, how, why, whenever, wherever, however有词义,在从句中做状语,不可以省略
4、that省略的情况:
    (1)定语从句中做宾语
(2)that引导宾语从句时
(3)that引导表语从句时
(4)主语从句中it做形式主语,that从句置于句末时
5、that不可省略的情况:
(1)定语从句中做主语
(2)由that引导主语从句放句首时
(3)that引导同位语从句时
(4)宾语从句中i  it做形式宾语,真正的that宾语从句中that不可以省略
                    ii  一个句子有两个或多个并列的宾语从句时,引导第二个和以后几个句子中的that不可以省略
                    iii  与动词相隔的宾语从句,不可以省略
                    iv  that引导的宾语从句放在句首时,不可以省略
二. 主语从句
1、主语从句:作句子主语的从句叫主语从句。
主语从句通常由下列词引导:
1)从属连词that,whether 等;
2)连接代词what,who,which,whatever,whoever,whom 等;
3) 连接副词how,when,where,why 等。
2、that在句中无词义,只起连接作用;连接代词和连接副词在句中既保留自己的疑问含义、又起连接作用,在从句中充当从句的成分。注:whom、who指人,what指物,whatever,whoever表示泛指意义。例如:
What he wants to tell us is not clear. 他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚。
Who will win the match is still unknown. 谁能赢得这场比赛还不得而知。
It is known to us how he became a writer. 我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。
Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced. 英语晚会将在哪里举行,还没有宣布。
注意:有时为避免句子头重脚轻,常用形式主语it代替主语从句作形式主语放于句首,而把主语从句置于句末。主语从句后的谓语动词一般用单数形式。常用句型如下:
(1)It + be + 名词 + that从句:It is a fact that  事实是
                             It is an honour that 非常荣幸
                             It is common knowledge that  …是常识
                             It is a pity that  遗憾……
(2)It + be + 动词的过去分词+ that从句:
                            It is said that  据说
                            It is reported that 据报道
                            It has been proved that 已经证明
                            It is believed that …  人们认为
                            It is supposed that…  据猜测
(3)It + 不及物动词(vi) + that 从句:
                            It seems that  似乎
                            It happened that 碰巧
                            It appears that  似乎
(4)It + be + 形容词 + that从句
                            It is natural that…  很自然…
                            It is strange that…  奇怪的是…
注意:在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等语气时,谓语动词要用虚拟语气“(should) +do”,常用的句型有:
It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.) that …
It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that…
3、It 作形式主语和it引导强调句的比较
①It 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平衡句子结构,主语从句的连接词没有变化。②it引导的强调句则是对句子某一部分进行强调,无论强调的是什么成分,都可用连词that引导,被强调部分指人时也可用who/whom。例如:
    a) It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film.  你不去看那场电影真可惜。
    b) It doesn’t interest me whether you succeed or not. 我对你成功与否不感兴趣。
    c) It is in the morning that the murder took place. 谋杀案是在早上发生的。(强调句型)
    d) It is John that broke the window. 是John打碎的窗户。(强调句型)
4、注意:since, if 不能引导主语从句,但当it做形式主语,主语从句放在句末时,if, whether均可
5、主语从句不可位于句首的五种情况:
(1)if 引导的主语从句不可居于复合句句首。
(2)It is said /reported…结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如:
        正确表达:It is said that President Jiang will visit our school next week.
        错误表达:That President Jiang will visit our school next week is said.
(3)It happens/occurs…结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如:
       正确表达:It occurred to him that he failed in the examination.
       错误表达:That he failed in the examination occurred to him.
(4)It doesn’t matter how/whether …结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如:
       正确表达:It doesn’t matter whether he is wrong or not.
       错误表达:Whether he is wrong or not doesn’t matter.
(5)含主语从句的复合句是疑问句时,主语从句不可提前。例如:
       正确表达:Is it likely that it will rain in the evening?
       错误表达:Is that will rain in the evening likely?
6、what 与that 在引导主语从句时的区别
    what 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当句子成分,如主语.宾语.表语,而that 则不然。例如:
    a) What you said yesterday is right.
    b) That she is still alive is a consolation
三、表语从句
表语从句:在复合句中,位于系动词之后作表语的从句叫表语从句。引导表语从句的关联词与引导主语从句的关联词大致一样,表语从句位于连系动词后,有时用as if引导。
可以接表语从句的系动词有be ,look , remain(保持), seem等
常用的还有the reason is that …  It is because …  It appears/seems that…
          It happens that…  It turns out that…(结果是...)等结构
由从属连词,连接代词,连接副词引导,其中that常常可以省略
由as if, as though 引导   It looks as if…  It seems as if…
why, because 都可以引导表语从句,但why强调结果,because强调理由
当主语为suggestion, order, requirement, advice, request, demand 等这类名词时,表语从句用虚拟语气(should)do
if不能引导表语从句
注意:当主语是reason时,表语从句要用that引导而不是because。例如:
The reason why he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning .
【注意】whether 可引导表语从句,但与之同义的if却通常不用于引导表语从句。
四、同位语从句
1、同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具体内容。同位语从句通常由that引导,that不可以省略
  由whether引导,不可用if
2、可用于同位语从句的名词有belief、advice、demand、doubt(怀疑)、possibility、though、proposal、case、fact、hope、idea、information、message、news、order、problem、promise、question、request、suggestion、truth、wish、word等。例如:
The news that we won the game is exciting. 我们赢得这场比赛的消息令人激动。
I have no idea when he will come back home. 我不知道他什么时候回来。
The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. 他想到可能玛丽生病了。
3、在no idea后用wh-疑问词引导
4、 同位语从句与定语从句的区别
(1) 定语从句中的that既代替先行词,同时以在从句中作某个成分(主语或宾语),而同位语从句中的that是连词,只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当句中任何成分。
(2) 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述定的性质或特征;同位语从句是名词性的,其功能是对名词进行补充说明。例如:
1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.(他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年将出国。)(第一个that引导的从句是定语从句,that在从句中作宾语)
2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.(汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。)(同位语从句,that在句中不作任何成分)

五、宾语从句
宾语从句:名词从句用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。由从属连词、连接代词、连接副词引导。
1. 由连接词that引导的宾语从句
由连接词that引导宾语从句时,that在句中不担任任何成分,在口语或非正式的文体中常被省去,但如从句是并列句时,第二个分句前的that不可省。例如:
He has told me that he will go to Shanghai tomorrow. 他已经告诉我他明天要去上海。
We must never think (that) we are good in everything while others are good in nothing. 我们决不能认为自己什么都好,别人什么都不好。
注意:在demand、order(命令)、suggest、decide、insist(坚持), desire, urge,advice,propose,require,request, command(命令), doubt等表示要求、命令、建议、决定等意义的动词后,宾语从句常用“(should)+ 动词原形”。例如:
I insist that she (should) do her work alone. 我坚持要她自己工作。
The commander ordered that troops (should) set off at once. 司令员命令部队马上出发。
2. 用who,whom, which, whose, what, when, where, why, how, whoever, whatever, whichever等关联词引导的宾语从句相当于特殊疑问句,应注意句子语序要用陈述语序。例如:
I want to know what he has told you. 我想知道他告诉了你什么。
She always thinks of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。
She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 凡需要帮助的人,她都会给予热情的支持。
3. 用whether或if引导的宾语从句,其主语和谓语的顺序也不能颠倒,仍保持陈述句语序。此外,whether与if 在作“是否”的意思讲时在下列情况下一般只能用whether,不用if:
a. 引导主语从句并在句首时;b. 引导表语从句时;c . 引导从句作介词宾语时;d. 从句后有“or not”时;e. 后接动词不定式时。例如:
Whether there is life on the moon is an interesting question. 月球上有没有生命是个有趣的问题。
Everything depends on whether we have enough money. 一切要看我们是否有足够的钱。
I wonder whether he will come or not. 我想知道他来还是不来。
Can you tell me whether to go or to stay? 你能否告诉我是去还是留?
4. 注意宾语从句中的时态呼应,当主句动词是现在时,从句根据自身的句子情况,而使用
不同时态。例如:
I know (that) he studies English every day. (从句用一般现在时)
I know (that) he studied English last term. (从句用一般过去时)
I know (that) he will study English next year. (从句用一般将来时)
I know (that) he has studied English since 1998. (从句用现在完成时)
当主句动词是过去时态(could, would除外),从句则要用相应的过去时态,如一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时等;当从句表示的是客观真理,科学原理,自然现象,则从句仍用现在时态。例如:
The teacher told us that Tom had left us for America.
5. think, believe, imagine, suppose,guess,expect,fancy,consider等等动词引起的否定性宾语从句中,要把上述主句中的动词变为否定式。即将从句中的否定形式移到主句中。例如:
We don’t think you are here. 我们认为你不在这。
I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他不会这样做。
6、后面不能接that从句的动词有:condemn谴责,判刑  force强迫  take拿走  forgive原谅  dislike不喜欢  refuse拒绝  let  like  love  help  admire羡慕  allow  celebrate  cause
注:以上动词后不能接that从句,但可以用不定式,动名词做宾语。
六、whether与if 均为"是否"的意思。 但在下列情况下,只可用whether:
1. whether引导主语从句并在句首时,只能用whether,当it做形式主语,主语放句首时,whether,if均可
eg:whether he can come to the party on time depends on the traffic
2. 引导表语从句
eg:The question is whether we can get in touch with her
3. whether从句作介词宾语
  e.g:It depends on whether he will come.
4.if与whether都可以与or not 连用,但后面紧跟or not 时只能用whether
We didn't know whether or not she was ready.(此时只能用whether)
I wonder whether/if the news is true or not.(此时则二者都可以用)
5. 引导同位语从句
Whether he will come is not clear.
6.后接不定式时
Eg I don’t know whether to go.
7.在discuss后只能用whether
注意:(1)大部分连接词引导的主语从句都可以置于句末,用 it充当形式主语。It is not important who will go.
            It is still unknown which team will win the match.
(2)whether从句中不能有否定式,而if可以
            I don’t care if he doesn’t come.

七、名词性that-从句
(1)由从属连词that引导的从句叫做名词性that-从句。That只起连接主句和从句的作用,在从句中不担任任何成分,本身也没有词义。名词性that-从句在句中能充当主 语、宾语、表语、同位语和形容词宾语,例如:
主语:That she is still alive is her luck. 她还活着全靠运气。
宾语:John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 约翰说他星期三要到伦敦去。
表语:The fact is that he has not been seen recently. 事实是近来谁也没有见过他。
同位语:The fact that he has not been seen recently disturbs everyone in his office.
近来谁也没有见过他,这一事实令办公室所有的人不安。
形容词宾语:I am glad that you are satisfied with your job.
你对工作满意我感到很高兴。
2)That-从句作主语通常用it作先行词,而将that-从句置于句末,例如:
It is quite clear that the whole project is doomed to failure. 很清楚,整个计划注定要失败。
It's a pity that you should have to leave. 你非走不可真是件憾事。
用it作形式主语的that-从句有以下四种不同的搭配关系:
a. It + be +形容词+ that-从句
It is necessary that… 有必要……
It is important that… 重要的是……
It is obvious that… 很明显……
b. It + be + -ed 分词+ that-从句
It is believed that… 人们相信……
It is known to all that… 众所周知……
It has been decided that… 已决定……
c. It + be +名词+ that-从句
It is common knowledge that… ……是常识
It is a surprise that… 令人惊奇的是……
It is a fact that… 事实是……
d. It +不及物动词+ that-从句
It appears that… 似乎……
It happens that… 碰巧……
It occurred to me that… 我突然想起……
八、名词性wh-从句
1)由wh-词引导的名词从句叫做名词性wh-从句。Wh-词包括who, whom,. whose, whoever, what, whatever, which, whichever等连接代词和where, when, how, why等连接副词。Wh-从句的语法功能除了和that-从句一样外,还可充当介词宾语、宾语补语和间接宾语等,例如:
主语: How the book will sell depends on its author. 书销售如何取决于作者本人。
直接宾语:In one's own home one can do what one likes. 在自己家里可以随心所欲。
间接宾语:The club will give whoever wins a prize.
俱乐部将给得胜者设奖。
表语: My question is who will take over president of the Foundation. 我的问题是谁将接任该基金会主席职位。
宾语补足语:She will name him whatever she wants to. 她高兴给他起什么名字就取什么名字。
同位语: I have no idea when he will return.
我不知道他什么时候回来。
形容词宾语:I'm not sure why she refused their invitation. 我尚不能肯定她为什么拒绝他们的邀请。
介词宾语: That depends on where we shall go.
那取决于我们去哪儿。
2)Wh-从句作主语也常用先行词it做形式主语,而将wh-从句置于句末,例如:
It is not yet decided who will do that job.
还没决定谁做这项工作。
It remains unknown when they are going to get married. 他们何时结婚依然不明。
九、if, whether引导的名词从句
1)yes-no型疑问从句
从属连词if, whether引导的名词从句是由一般疑问句或选择疑问转化而来的,因此也分别被称为yes-no型疑问句从句和选择型疑问从句,其功能和wh-从句的功能相同, 例如:
主语:Whether the plan is feasible remains to be proved. 这一计划是否可行还有待证实。
宾语:Let us know whether / if you can finish the article before Friday. 请让我们知道你是否能在星期五以前把文章写完。
表语:The point is whether we should lend him the money. 问题在于我们是否应该借钱给他。
同位语:They are investigating the question whether the man is trustworthy. 他们调查他是否值得信赖。
形容词宾语: She's doubtful whether we shall be able to come. 她怀疑我们是否能够前来。
介词宾语: I worry about whether he can pass through the crisis of his illness. 我担心他是否能度过疾病的危险期。
2)选择性疑问从句
选择性疑问从句由关联词if/whether…or或whether…or not构成,例如:
Please tell me whether / if they are Swedish or Danish. 请告诉我他们是瑞典人还是丹麦人。
I don't care whether you like the plan or not.我不在乎你是否喜欢该计划。
if和whether的区别:
1、 在动词不定式之前只能用whether 。如:
例8 I can’t decide whether to stay. 我不能决定是否留下。
2、 在whether …… or not 的固定搭配中。如:
例9 I want to know whether it’s good news or not . 我想知道是否是好消息。
3 、在介词后,只能用whether。如:
例10 His father is worried about whether he lose his work . 他的父亲担心是否会失去工作。
4、宾语从句放在句首表示强调时,只能用whether 。如:
Whether this is true or not, I really don’t know. 这是否真的,我真的不知道。
(例11 Whether they can finish the work on time is still a problem . 他们是否能准时完成这项工作还是个问题。--此例为主语从句,有误,感谢指出)
5、用if会引起歧义时,只用whether。如:
例12 Could you tell me if you know the answer ?
这句话有两种意思:“你能告诉我是否知道答案吗?”或“如果你知道答案,请告诉我,好吗?”。如用whether可避免歧义.
十、否定转移
1) 将think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。
I don't think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。
I don' t believe he will come. 我相信他不回来。
注意:若谓语动词为hope,宾语从句中的否定词不能转移。
I hope you weren't ill. 我想你没有生病吧。
2) 将seem, appear 等后的从句的否定转移到前面。
It doesn't seem that they know where to go.
看来他们不知道往哪去。
It doesn't appear that we'll have a sunny day tomorrow.
看来我们明天不会碰上好天气。
3) 有时将动名词,介词短语或整个从句的否定转变为对谓语动词的否定。
I don't remember having ever seen such a man.
我记得从未见过这样一个人。 (not否定动名词短语 having…)
It's not a place where anyone would expect to see strange characters on the street.
在这里,人们不会想到在街上会碰上陌生的人。
(anyone 作主语,从句中的谓语动词不能用否定形式。)
4) 有时状语或状语从句中否定可以转移到谓语动词前。
The ant is not gathering this for itself alone. (否定状语) 蚂蚁不只是为自己采食。
He was not ready to believe something just because Aristotle said so. (否定because状语) 他并不因亚里斯多德说过如何如何,就轻信此事。
She had not been married many weeks when that man's younger brother saw her and was struck by her beauty. (否定状语many weeks) 她结婚还不到几个星期,这个人的弟弟就看见她了,并对她的美貌着了迷。

高中英语语法精讲:虚拟语气应用讲解

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 36 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:40 • 来自相关话题

高中英语语法精讲:虚拟语气应用讲解 虚拟语气除主要用于条件句(也就是状语从句)外,还可用于主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、定语从句等。 1. 虚拟语气在主语从句中的应用 “ ...查看全部
322.jpg

高中英语语法精讲:虚拟语气应用讲解

虚拟语气除主要用于条件句(也就是状语从句)外,还可用于主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、定语从句等。

1. 虚拟语气在主语从句中的应用

“常用在It is (was)+形容词 / 过去分词+that引导的主语从句”的句型中的主语从句要用虚拟语气。主语从句的谓语用should+动词原形(或should+have+过去分词)或只用动词原形(尤其是美国英语)。should在此是助动词,本身并无实义,这种主语从句中的should有时有感情色彩。

It's important that we(should)work out a plan. (带有“要求”的含义)

It's better that he go at once. (带有“建议”的意思)

☆ 用于本句型的形容词并不多,常见形容词有:necessary,important,best, right, impossible,preferable,desirable, imperative, advisable,essential,reserved,urgent, 等。

It is necessary that he(should)be sent there at once.

It's strange that he should say so.

I was glad that he should go.

It is important that we should speak politely.

It is a pity that she should fare so badly.

It's right that you should think that way.

☆用于本句型中的过去分词就是表示提议要求、命令等动词的过去分词,如suggested,settled, required,requested,demanded,urged,decided, proposed,ordered,desired,advised等。

It is requested that Professor Liu(should)give us a lecture.

It is desired that we(should)get everything ready by tonight.

I’m ashamed you should have done such a thing.

It has been suggested that the meeting(should)be put off.有人建议推迟会议。

It is settled that you leave us, then?

注意:这种句型中的主语从句也可用陈述语气,如:It was important that he made an explicit statement on this score last week. 他上个星期对于这一方面做了明确的说明,这是很重要的。

2. 虚拟语气在宾语从句中的应用

1). 宾语从句在表示提议、要求、命令、意志等动词后,其谓语用should+动词原形或只用动词原形的虚拟语气,作为suggest,request,demand,urge,propose,prefer,advise,insist,require,order,command,maintain,ask,object, arrange, desire等动词的宾语。

如:

The doctor suggested that he not go there.医生建议他不要去那里。

He suggested that we should leave early. 他建议我们早点动身。

The judge ordered that the prisoner should be remanded. 法官命令被告还押。

2). wish的宾语的从句,表示愿望,常省去连词that。

☆ 从句的谓语动词可用过去式,表示现在的愿望(与现在事实相反),虽实现的可能性不大,但仍有实现的可能。

   I wish it were true.我但愿这是真的。

☆ 从句的谓语动词还可用“could(would,might)+动词原形”用来表示将来的愿望

   I wish you would stay a little longer.我希望你再待一会儿。

   ☆ 表示无能为力的过去愿望(与过去事实相反),可用“had +过去分词”或“could(would,might)+have+过去分词”

I wish you had called yesterday.我希望你昨天来过电话。

We wish you had come to our New Year’s party.我们真希望你来参加了我们的新年联欢会。

3). would rather, would sooner等表示愿望,其宾语从句常用虚拟过去式。

☆ 表示与现在和将来含义事实相反的虚拟语气要用动词的过去式

☆ 用过去完成式(had + 过去分词)表示过去事实相反的含义

I would rather you came tomorrow.我宁愿你明天来。

I’d sooner she left the heavy end of the work to some one else.我宁愿她把重活留给别人。

4). 有些动词,如think, expect, believe,其否定式的宾语从句亦可用should+动词原形。如:

I never thought he should refuse.我万没有想到他会拒绝。

She did not expect that you should come.她没有预料你会来。

3. 虚拟语气在表语从句中的应用

名词suggestion,proposal,order,advice,demand等作主语,其后的表语从句中的谓语动词一般使用虚拟语气,用should +动词原形或省略should。

My suggestion is that we (should) send a few soldiers to help them.

我的建议是我们应派几个战士去增援他们。

My advice is that you (should) treat her well. 我的忠告是你应该善待她。

He makes the demand that she (should) leave the place at once.

他提出一个要求,要求她立刻离开这个地方。

My suggestion is that we should tell him.我的建议是我们应该告诉他。

Our only request is that this should be settled as soon as possible.

我们唯一的请求就是尽快解决这个问题。

注意:虚拟语气也可以用于同位语从句。

如:There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team.有一项建议是布朗应该离队。

4. 虚拟语气在定语从句中的应用

常用在It is time (that)…句型中,定语从句常用虚拟过去式

It is time the children went to bed. 孩子们早该上床睡觉了。(表示催促)

It's high time that he began to think how to deal with money.

他早该开始考虑如何与钱打交道。

It is time we left.我们该走了。

It is time we went to bed.我们该去睡觉了。

5. 虚拟式动词原形亦常用在独立句中,表愿望

Long live the Communist Party of China!中国共产党万岁!

God bless you! 上帝保佑你。

God damn it! 该死的!

The devil take you! 见鬼去吧!

So be it then. 就那样吧。

6. 虚拟时态与谓语动词时态的关系:从句中的虚拟时态往往不受全句谓语时态的影响。

1) 用于主语从句。试比较:

It is important that he should know about this.他必须知道此事。

It was important that he should know about this.他必须知道此事。

2) 用于宾语从句。试比较:

I suggest that we should go tomorrow.我建议我们明天走。

I suggested that we should go the next day.我建议我们第二天走。

She said, “If I were a boy I would join the army.”她说,“我如是男孩,就参军。”

She said that if she were a boy, she would join the army.她说她如是男孩就参军。

但强调现在时刻的虚拟式在间接引语中需要遵守时态一致的原则。试比较:

“If I knew how it worked, I could tell you what to do,” he said.

“假如我知道它是如何运行的话,我就会告诉你该怎么办,”他说道。

He said that if he had known how it worked he could have told me what to do.

他说假如他知道它是如何运行的话,他就会告诉我该怎么办。

“If I knew the answer to all your questions I'd be a genius,” he said.

“我如知道你所有问题的答案,我就是天才了。”他说道。

He said that if he knew the answer to all my questions, he’d be a genius.

他说他如知道我所有问题的答案,他就是天才了。

但如果全句谓语是虚拟语气,其后从句的时态则多受其影响,现在时态应随之而变为过去时态。

如:I would think he was wrong.我看他是错了。(须用was,试比较:I think he is wrong)

It would seem that she was right. 她似乎是对的。(须用was,试比较:It seems that she is right)

高考英语语法提升:虚拟语气专项练习题

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 41 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:37 • 来自相关话题

高考英语语法提升:虚拟语气专项练习题 专项练习1: 1.I enjoyed the movie very much. I wish I _____ the book from which it was ...查看全部
2.jpg

高考英语语法提升:虚拟语气专项练习题

专项练习1:

1.I enjoyed the movie very much. I wish I _____ the book from which it was made.

A. have read B. had read

C. should have read D. are reading

2.You are late. If you _____ a few minutes earlier, you _____ him.

A. come; would meet B. had come; would have met

C. come; will meet D. had come; would meet

3.The two students talked as if they _____ friends for years.

A. should be B. would be

C. have been D. had been

4.It is important that I _____ with Mr. Williams immediately.

A. speak B. spoke

C. will speak D. to speak

5.He looked as if he _____ ill for a long time.

A. was B. Were   C. has been D. had been

6.If the doctor had come earlier, the poor child would not _____.

A. have laid there for two hours B. have been lied there for two hours

C. have lied there for two hours D. have lain there for two hours

7.I wish that I _____ with you last night.

A. went B. could go

C. have gone D. could have gone

8.Let’s say you could go there again, how _____ feel?

A. will you B. should you

C. would you D. do you

9.I can’t stand him. He always talks as though he _____ everything.

A. knew B. knows

C. has known D. had known

10._____ the fog, we should have reached our school.

A. Because of B. In spite of

C. In case of D. But for

11.If you had told me in advance, I _____ him at the airport.

A. would meet B. would had met

C. would have met D. would have meet

12.Mike can take his car apart and put it back together again. I certainly wish he_____ me how.

A. teaches B. will teach

C. has taught D. would teach

13.I would have told him the answer, had it been possible, but I _____ so busy then.

A. had been B. were

C. was D. would be

14.He’s working hard for fear that he _____.

A. should fall behind B. fell behind

C. may fall behind D. would fallen behind

15.If it _____ another ten minutes, the game would have been called off.

A. had rained B. would have rained

C. have seen D. rained

16.He suggested that they _____ use a trick instead of fighting.

A. should B. would

C. do D. had

17.My father did not go to New York; the doctor suggested that he _____ there.

A. not went B. won’t go

C. not go D. not to go

18.I would have gone to the meeting if I _____ time.

A. had had B. have had

C. had D. would have had

19.Would you rather I _____ buying a new bike?

A. decided against B. will decide against

C. have decided D. shall decide against

20.You look so tired tonight. It is time you _____.

A. go to sleep B. went to sleep

C. go to bed D. went to bed

21.—Why didn’t you buy a new car?

—I would have bought one if I _____ enough money.

A. had B. have had

C. would have D. had had

22.If she could sew, _____.

A. she make a dress B. she would have made a shirt

C. she will make a shirt D. she would had made a coat

23._____ today, he would get there by Friday.

A. Would he leave B. Was he leaving

C. Were he to leave D. If he leaves

24.His doctor suggested that he _____ a short trip abroad.

A. will take B. would take

C. take D. took

25.The Bakers arrived last night. If they’d only let us know earlier,_____ at the station.

A. we’d meet them B. we’ll meet them

C. we’d have met them D. we’ve met them

26.If I _____ you, I _____ more attention to English idioms and phrases.

A. was; shall pay B. am; will pay

C. would be; would pay D. were; would pay

27.We might have failed if you _____ us a helping hand.

A. have not given B. would not give

C. had not given D. did not give

28.The law requires that everyone _____ his car checked at least once a year.

A. has B. had

C. have D. will have

29.It is strange that he _____ so.

A. would say B. would speak

C. should say D. will speak

30.Had I known her name, _____

A. or does she know mine? B. and where does she live?

C. she would be beautiful. D. I would have invited her to lunch.

31.He has just arrived, but he talks as if he _____ all about that.

A. know B. knows

C. known D. knew

32.If I _____ the money, I would have bought a much bigger car.

A. possessed B. owned

C. had D. had had

33.He was very busy yesterday; otherwise, he _____ to the meeting.

A. would come B. came

C. would have come D. will come

34.The librarian insists that John _____ no more books from the library before he returns all the books he has borrowed.

A. will take B. took

C. take D. takes

35.I left very early last night, but I wish I _____ so early.

A. didn’t leave B. hadn’t left

C. haven’t left D. couldn’t leave

36.I do not have a job. I would find one but I _____ no time.

A. had B. didn’t have

C. had had D. have

37.I wish that you _____ such a bad headache because I’m sure that you would have enjoyed the concert.

A. hadn’t B. didn’t have had

C. hadn’t had D. hadn’t have

38.He insisted that we all _____ in his office at one o’clock.

A. be B. to be

C. would be D. shall be

39.Helen couldn’t go to France after all. That’s too bad. I’m sure she would have enjoyed it if _____.

A. she’s gone B. she’ll go

C. she’d gone D. she’d go

专项练习2:

1.His doctor suggested that he ______ a short leave of absence.

A.will take B.would take C.take D.took

2.The job would require that ______ at 7 o'clock every morning.

A.he will be at the factory B.he be at the factory

C.he was at the factory D.he has been at the factory

3.Your advice that she ______ till next week is reasonable.

A.will wait B.is going to wait C.waits D.wait

4.The housemaster was strict.He requested that we ______ television on week nights.

A.not watch B.must not to watch

C.not be watching D.have not watched

5.It is necessary that a worker ______ his work on time.

A.accomplishes B.can accomplish

C.accomplish D.has accomplished

6.It is important that he ______ his decision before Friday.

A.will make B.makes C.make D.must make

7.You look so tired. It's time you ______ .

A.go to sleep B.went to sleep

C.go to bed D.went to bed

8.I'd rather you ______ anything about it for the time being.

A.do B.didn't do C.don't D.didn't

9.But for water,it ______ impossible to live in the desert.

A.is B.was C.were D.wouldn't be

10. ______ it______ for your help,I couldn't have made any progress.

A.Had;not been B.Should;not been

C.Did;not been D.Not;be

11.Long ______ the Party!

A.lives B.live C.will live D.should live

12.Mary insisted that Tom ______ her the ring back.

A.gives B.give C.given D.have given

13.My suggestion was that the meeting ______ off till next week.

A.to put B.be put

C.should put D.be putting

14.Mother suggested that I ______ my homework first before watching TV.

A.did B.do C.shall do D.have done

15.He insisted that nothing ______ till he arrived.

A.must be started B.ought to be started

C.could be started D.should be started

16.Tom suggests that Ann ______ the house.

A.can sell B.sells C.sell D.sold

17.It's better that he ______ it from you.

A.'ll hear B.hears C.should hear D.heard

18.It was necessary that he ______ about what had happened.

A.be told B.was told C.should tell D.tell

19.It's astonishing that she ______ sad at news that it has nothing to do with her.

A.felt B.should feel C.'ll feel D.would feel

20.It was strange that we ______ short of water in the country where it was always raining.

A.are B.be C.should be D.both B and C

21.It is strange that she ______ marry such an ugly man.

A.would B.should C.shall D.must

22.It's not right that the meeting ______ off till tomorrow.

A.must be put B.must put C.will be put D.be put

23.It was impossible that he ______ the train, for he had started out very early.

A.could have missed B.must have missed

C.should have missed D.should miss

24.It's a pity that he ______ such a good chance.

A.should miss B.should have missed C.has missed D.all the above

25.He tried to find some excuse for the debt, but I insisted that he ______ it off at once.

A.must pay B.ought to pay C.paid D.pay

26.Mr. Ford insisted that he ______ right, though the others didn't think so.

A.should do B.should have done C.had done D.did

27.His pale face suggested that he ______ the sad news.

A.should be told B.should have been told

C.was told D.had been told

28.He suggested that we ______ here at once.

A.should leave B.must leave C.left D.ought to leave

29.My order is that everyone ______ their own work in time.

A.must complete B.completed C.completes D.complete

30.We've made the decision that we ______ at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning.

A.will gather B.are about to gather

C.would gather D.should gather

31.----I'll be waiting for you at home.

---- ______ I were busy and couldn't come?

A.What if B.What when C. How if D.How when

32.After he was praised for what he had done, he said,“I ______ even better under harder conditions. ”

A.would do B.would have done C.did D.had done

33.It has been raining for a day, but even though it ______ , we ______ there by tomorrow.

A.hadn't rained, couldn't get B.hadn't rained, can't get

C.didn't rain, couldn't get D.didn't rain, can't get

34.We could not have succeeded ______ your help.

A.but for B.without

C.if it had not been for D.all the above

35.I dare say he is not your true friend, because a true friend ______ differently when you were in trouble.

A.acted B.had acted C.would act D.would have acted

专项练习1:

 

1—5 BBDAD 6—10 DDCAD 11—15 CDCAA 16—20 ACAAD

21—25 DBCCC 26—30 DCCCD 31—35 DDCCB 36—39 DCAC

解析:

1.wish后面用虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反用过去完成时。

2.条件句表示与过去事实相反,主句用过去将来完成时,从句用过去完成时。

3.as if后面如果表示真实情况就不用虚拟。

4.It is important that是主语从句的虚拟语气,从句用sb. should do的形式。

5.as if后面是真实情况,不虚拟。

6.lain是lie的过去分词,表示“躺”。

7.could have done表示“本来可以”。

8.与将来相反的虚拟语气,主句用过去将来时。

9.as if表示不可能发生的事情时用虚拟语气。

10.but for表示“要不是……的话”,通常与虚拟语气搭配使用。

11.in advance表示“事先”,表示与过去事实相反的虚拟语气。

12.wish的宾语从句表示发生在将来的愿望用过去将来时。

13.but的并列句表示真实情况,不用虚拟语气。

14.for fear that后面的状语从句用sb. should do的形式。

15.表示与过去事实相反,主句用过去将来完成时,从句用过去完成时。

16.suggest后面的宾语从句用sb. should do的形式。

17.suggest后面的从句用sb. should do的形式,should可以省略。

18.表示与过去事实相反,从句用过去完成时。

19.would rather的宾语从句用sb. did的形式。

20.It is time后面的定语从句用sb. did的形式。

21.第一个had是过去完成时,第二个had表示“有”。

22.would have done是过去将来完成时,表示与过去相反的虚拟语气。

23.这是虚拟语气的倒装形式,把if去掉,助动词提前。

24.suggest后面的从句用sb. should do的形式,should可以省略。

25.表示与过去事实相反,主句用过去将来完成时。

26.在虚拟语气中,不管什么人称,be动词都要用were的形式。

27.表示与过去事实相反,从句用过去完成时。

28.require后面的从句用sb. should do的形式,should可以省略。

29.It is strange that是主语从句的虚拟语气,从句用sb. should do的形式。

30.had I known是与过去相反的虚拟语气的倒装形式。

31.as if表示不可能发生的事情时用虚拟语气。

32.第一个had是过去完成时,第二个had表示“有”。

33.otherwise经常可以搭配虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反。

34.当insist表示“坚持认为”时不用虚拟形式。

35.wish后面用虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反用过去完成时。

36.but的并列句表示真实情况,不用虚拟语气。

37.wish后面用虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反用过去完成时。

38.当insist表示“坚持要求”时从句用虚拟形式。

39.表示与过去事实相反,从句用过去完成时。

专项练习2: 参考答案:

1.C 2.B 3.D 4.A 5.C

6.C 7.D 8.B 9.D 10.A

11.B 12.B 13.B 14.B

15. D  insist作“要求别人做某事”解,其宾语从句用should型虚拟语气。

16. C  这种should型虚拟语气,有时可将should省略,因此,C项的sell不能有人称变化。

17.C  本句话有“要求”的意思,故选C。

 

18. A  C、D为主动,在此不妥。

19. B  选B表示了说话人带有一种十分惊讶的感情,选A项与she的人称不相一致,是错的。参见本章语法说明。

20. D  

21.B  should带有感情色彩。

22.D  本句带有要求之意,故从句谓语用should型虚拟语气。D项中的should被省略。

23.C  本句带有惊讶之意,故从句须用should型虚拟语气。但由于是过去的事情所产生的惊讶,所以用should+不定式完成式。

24.D  如选A,这表达了说话人对将来的事所发出的感叹,选B则是对已经过去的事情的感叹。选C则是一个直陈语气,即说话人对此并不一定感到十分惋惜,而是对此事的陈述。

25.D  insist在作“坚持要求别人做某事”时,需要用should型虚拟语气,should也可以省略。

26.C  insist在作“坚持自己的观点、看法等”解时,不需要用虚拟语气,所以A、B两项用在此处不当。D项时态不准确,故也应排除。

27.D  suggest作建议解时,后接了should型虚拟语气,但在本句中作“表明”解,这时不用虚拟语气,A、B两项都应排除,C项时态不当。

28.A  在本句中suggest作“建议”解,故选A。

29.D  “建议”、“命令”、“要求”等动词的名词形式做主语时,其表语从句也须用should型虚拟语气,本句中的should被省略。

30.D  “建议”、“命令”、“要求”等动词的名词形式做主语时,后接同位语从句时也须should型虚拟语气。

31.A  What if…?常用于省略疑问句,既可以用于虚拟语气,也可用于直陈语气。本句不省略的形式为What would you do if。

32.B  本句的under引出一个非真实的条件,当然也可以是真实条件。根据上下文,应理解为与过去事实相反,故其谓语动词用would have done。

33.B  even though=even if意为“即使”。它同if一样可以引出一个真实的让步从句,也可以引出一个非真实的让步从句。根据上文,even though是一个非真实的与过去事实相反的让步从句。而主句we can't get there却是一个真实的情况。

34.D   

35.D  从全句的意思分析,a true friend-differently实际上是指一种假设,而when引导的从句又告诉我们,这是一个与过去事实相反的假设,故用would have acted。

高中英语语法必修课:虚拟语气用法归纳

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 42 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:34 • 来自相关话题

高中英语语法必修课:虚拟语气用法归纳 语气 (mood)是一种动词形式,用以表示说话者的意图或态度。英语中的语气有三种:陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。 直陈语气(indicative mood),表示 ...查看全部
3.jpg

高中英语语法必修课:虚拟语气用法归纳

语气 (mood)是一种动词形式,用以表示说话者的意图或态度。英语中的语气有三种:陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。

直陈语气(indicative mood),表示所说的话是事实。

祈使语气 (imperative mood),表示所说的话是请求或命令。

虚拟语气(subjunctive mood),表示说的话不是事实,或者是不可能发生的情况,而是一种愿望、建议或与事实相反的假设等。

一. 虚拟语气在条件句中的应用

学习虚拟语气在条件句中的用法之前我们必须清楚条件句的种类:条件句有真实条件句与非真实条件句(或称虚拟条件句)两种。真实条件句所表的假设是可能发生或实现的,句中的条件从句与结果主句都用陈述语气。

如:

If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, I will go for a picnic. 假若明天不下雨,我就去野餐。

Oil floats if you pour it on water. 你如把油倒在水里,油就浮起来。

虚拟条件句所表的假设则是不可能或不大可能发生或实现的,句中的条件从句与结果主句皆须用虚拟语气。

124.png

1. 与现在事实相反的虚拟条件句,条件从句的谓语用动词的过去式 (be的过去式用were), 主句的谓语用should (would, might, could)+动词原形。

如:

If it were not raining, we should go for a picnic.如果现在不下雨的话,我们就出去野餐了。

(事实是:天在下雨,我们不能出去野餐。表示愿望。)

If he came here, he might be able to help you. 如果他来这,他就能够帮助你了。

(事实是:他没来这,他不可能帮助你。表示对他的良好印象。)

2. 与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句,条件从句的谓语用had+过去分词,主句的谓语用should ( would, might, could)+ have +过去分词。

如: She would have gone to the party if she had been invited.

要是当初她被邀请的话,她就会去参加这次聚会了。

(事实是:当时没有人邀请她,因此,她没有来参加聚会。表示后悔。)

If she hadn't called me, I would have overslept this morning.

今天早上,她要是不叫我的话,我就会睡过头了。

(事实是:她今天早上叫我了,我没有睡过头。表示感激。)

3. 与将来事实可能相反的虚拟条件句,条件从句的谓语用动词的过去式(be的过去式用were); should+动词原形;were to+动词原形,主句用should (would, might, could)+动词原形。

如: If I were to be twenty years old next year, I would take the course of French.

明年我要是二十岁,我就会学法语。

(事实是:我现在已经老了,明年我学不了法语了。)

If it should fail, I would try again.要是失败了,我会再试一次。

(事实是:有可能失败,可我会再试。表示未知。)

虚拟过去式有时并不表示“不大可能实现的假设”,而是表示一种希望或不希望发生的动作。

如: If we caught the early train, we’d get there by lunch time.

假如我们赶上早班火车,到午饭时间我们就会到达那里了。(表希望)

If we missed the train, we should have to wait an hour at the station.

假如我们赶不上这班火车,我们就得在车站等一小时。(表不希望)

4. 混合型的条件句

当条件从句与主句所表的时间不一致时,虚拟语气的形式应作相应的调整。主句和从句的谓语动词并不相互呼应,这种条件句叫混合条件句。较多见的混合型条件句是从句用过去完成时(指过去行为),而主句用一般时(指目前状态)。

He would pass the test if he had taken my advice.如果他听了我的劝告,他现在会通过考试。

If I had spoken to him yesterday, I should know what to do now.

假如昨天我对他说了,现在我就知道该怎么办了。

You would be much better now if you had taken my advice.

假如你接受了我的意见,你现在就会好得多。

如条件从句用if I were...,主句则可用表任何时间的虚拟形式。

如: If I were not busy, I would have come.

假如我不忙,我就会去了。(were表过去)

If I were you, I would go.

假如我是你,我会去的。(were表现在)

二. 连词if的省略

如果虚拟条件句的谓语部分有were,had和should时,可省略if,把were,had和should放到从句主语前面去,多见于书面语。

Had you not helped me, I should have failed.要是没有你的帮助,我就失败了。

Were you in my position, you would do the same. 假如你处在我的地位,你也会这样干的。

Should they attack us, we’ll wipe them out completely.

假如他们进攻我们,我们就把他们彻底消灭干净。

三. 含蓄条件句

虚拟条件句中的条件从句有时不表出来,只暗含在上下文中,这种句子叫做含蓄条件句。含蓄条件句大体有三种情况。

1) 条件暗含在短语中。

如: But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the experiment.

如果没有你的帮助,我们的实验是不会成功的。(暗含在分词短词but for your help)

What would I have done without you? 如没有你,我会怎么办呢?(条件暗含在介词短语without you 中)

It would be easier to do it this way. 这样做会比较容易。

(条件暗含在不定式短语 to do it this way中)

This same thing, happening in wartime, amount to disaster.

同样的事,如发生在战时,就会酿成大祸。(条件暗含在分词短语happening in wartime 中)

He must have the strength of a hippopotamus, or he never could have vanquished that great beast. 他一定是力大如河马,否则他绝不会击败那只庞大的野兽。(暗含条件是连词or)

Alone, he would have been terrified. 如是单独一人,他是会感到害怕的。(暗含条件是alone)

2) 条件暗含在上下文中。

如: You might stay here forever. 你可以永远待在这儿。(可能暗含if you wanted to)

We would have succeeded. 我们本来是会成功的。(可能暗含if we had kept trying)

Your reputation would be ruined. 你的名誉会败坏的。(可能暗含 if you should accept it)

3) 在不少情况下,虚拟式已变成习惯说法,很难找出其暗含的条件。

如: You wouldn’t know. 你不会知道。

I would like to come. 我愿意来。

四. 不用if引导的条件从句

虚拟条件句中的条件从句除用if引外,还可用when, unless, lest, suppose, as if, for fear, in case, on condition 等词语来引导。

如: The peasants prepared to feed the city when it should be freed.

农民已准备在这座城市解放后供给粮食。

Lest you should not have heard all, I shall begin at the beginning.

我怕你没有听全,所以我再从头开始讲一遍。

Unless I were well, I wouldn’t be at school. 除非我好了,否则我不会上学。

Suppose you were given a chance to study in America , would you accept?

假如给你一个到美国学习的机会,你会接受吗?(suppose 或 supposing =what if)

Supposing it were so?(=Supposing it were so,what would happen?)

要是这样的话,会怎么样呢?

He can use the bicycle on condition that he should return it tomorrow.

如果明天能还回来,他就可以借用这辆自行车。

In case I forget , please remind me of my promise 如果我忘了,请提醒我的诺言。

Susan is walking slowly ,as if she were tired. 苏珊走得很慢,就像是累了似的。

与if一样,上述词语所引导的条件从句亦可用直陈语气,表可能实现或发生的事。

高考英语语法提升:过去完成时专项练习题

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 38 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:31 • 来自相关话题

高考英语语法提升:过去完成时专项练习题 Ⅰ. Multiple Choices. 1.I lost the dictionary I ________. A.have bought B.bought C ...查看全部
4.jpg

高考英语语法提升:过去完成时专项练习题

Ⅰ. Multiple Choices.
1.I lost the dictionary I ________.
A.have bought B.bought C.had bought D.had been bought
2.The train had gone when my brother _______ at the station.
A.have arrived B.arrived C.had arrived D.am arriving
3. Mary _______ of visiting her grandmother, but the bad weather made her change her mind.
A.has thought B.thought C.had thought D.had been thought
4.------Did you meet Tom at the airport? ------No,he _______ by the time I ______ there.
A.has left;got B.had left;arrived C.left;arrived D.left;had got
5.-------Why didn’t Tom attend the meeting yesterday? -------He __________ Beijing.
A.has gone to B.had gone to C.went to D.had been to
6.-------I _______ to come to help you. ------But you didn’t come.
A.have meant B.had meant C.meant D.will mean
7.Finally one of my friends _______ by Beijing University,for which she ___ five times
A.were admitted; had tried B.was admitted; had tried C.were admitted; has tried D.was admitted; tried
8.------I have bought you the books you want. ------Oh,good,I _______ afraid you had forgotten.
A.was B.am C.had been D.have been
9.We _________ four thousand new words by the end of last year.
A.had learned B.have learned C.learned D.will have learned
10.Helen _______her keys in the office so she had to wait until her husband ______home.
A.has left;comes B.left;had come C.had left;came D.had left;would come
11. My father _________ to the hospital when I hurried home.
A. had gone B. went C. had been taken D. had been sent
12. ----- Jim, ________ you _________ your homework?
----- Yes, of course, but I ________ it late bed time.
A. do do; finished B. did do; had finished C. have done; had finished D. have done; finished
13. You ____ football after school. Why not go home and do your homework first?
A. always played B. are always playing C. have always played D. have always been playing
es
14. Ever since Picasso’s painting went on exhibit, there ____ large crowds at the museum every day.
A. is B. has been C. have been D. had been
15. ---What do you think of my suggestion? --- Sorry. What’s that? I _____ about something else.
A. was thinking B. thought C. am thinking D. had thought
Ⅱ. Fill in the blanks according to the meanings of the sentences by using tenses of the verbs.
1. How many English songs ___________ she __________ (learn) by the end of last month?、
2. Hardly _______ I ______ (get) on the bus when it started to move
3. He __________________(read) the book before he was ten years old.
4. She said she ___________________ (see) the film before.
5. Our English teacher _________________ (teach) English in Guangxi for ten years before he came to No.113 Middle School.
6. By the end of last month, they _________________(complete)the bridge .
7. No sooner ________ I _______ (go) out than he came to see me.
89. The classroom _______________ (clean) before we ___________ (get) there yesterday.
10. ________ the boy ___________ (finish) his homework before you saw him?
11. When we got to the station, the train _____________ already _____________. (leave)
12. The book __________ by the end of last month. (finish)
13. When I got back to the shop , my bag _________________ (take) away by someone else.
14. When I arrived at the cinema, the film _________________ (be )on for ten minutes.
15. ---What’s that terrible noise?
---The neighbors ______ (prepare) for a party.
16. The mayor of Beijing says that all construction work for the Beijing Olympics ______ ( complete) by 2006.
17. The teacher, with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, ______ (visit) a museum when the earthquake struck.
18. ---Mr. Johnson didn’t turn up at the meeting yesterday morning, did he?
--- No. We __________ (wait) till twelve o’clock. A whole morning was wasted.
19. ---Why haven’t you asked her to come here?
---She _______ (do) an important experiment when I found her and she ________ (not, finish) it.
答案:
Keys:
Ⅰ. 1-5 CBCBB 6-10 BBAAC 11-15. DDBCA
Ⅱ. 1. had learnt 2. had got 3. had read 4. had seen 5. had taught 6. had completed 7. had gone 8. had gone 9. had been cleaned, got 10. Had finished 11. had left 12. had been finished 13. had been taken 14. had been on 15. are preparing 16. will have been completed 17. was visiting 18. were waiting 19. was doing, hasn’t finished

补充练习:
一、选择填空:
1 We __ four thousand new words by the end of last year.  
A had learned     B have learned      C learned
 2 Helen ____ her keys in the office so she had to wait until her husband ___home.(NMET’96)  
A has left; comes   B left;had come   C had left;came
3 I lost the book I ____.
A have bought    B bought     C had bought  
4 The bus had gone when I ____ at the bus stop.
A have arrived     B arrived     C had arrived
5 Tom ____ of visiting his grandmother, but the bad weather made him change his mind.  
 A has thought    B thought      C had thought
6 —Did you meet Tom at the airport?
   —No,he ___ by the time I ___ there.
A.has left; got    B had left;arrived    C left;had got
7—Why didn’t Tom attend the meeting yesterday?
   —He ___ Beijing.
A.has gone to B had gone to C went to
8 Finally Mary was admitted by Beijing University, for which she ___ five times.
A had tried     B tried  C has tried  
9 —I have bought you the books you want.  
—Oh,good. I __ afraid you had forgotten.
二、用括号中所给单词的适当形式填空:
1 How many English songs _________she ______ (learn) by the end of last month?
2 By the time my parents reached home yesterday, I _______________ dinner already. (cook)
3 He ____________ to play the piano before he was ten years old. (learn)
4 She said she _________ the film before. (see)
5 Our English teacher _______________ (teach) English in Guangxi for ten years before he came to No.113 Middle School.
6 By the end of last month, they _______________ the bridge. (complete)
7 What _____ Lord Kelvin ______ by the time he was ten? (do)
8 He asked where I ____________ (go) during the summer vacation.
9 The classroom ____________ (clean) before we ______ (get) there yesterday.
10 _____ the boy ______________ his homework before you saw him? (finish)
11 When we got to the station, the train ________ already _______. (leave)
12 We ______________ the book by the end of last month. (finish)
13 When I got back to the shop , someone else _____________ (take) my bag away.
14 When I arrived at the cinema, the film _____________ (be on) for ten minutes.
15 Jack ___________ in Egypt for eight years before he moved to Guangzhou. (live)
16 He didn’t asked me to speak at the meeting, because I _____ already ______ (refuse) to do it.
17 Last week I didn’t return the book to the library, because I ______________ (not finish) it.
18 Tom said that he ________________ (visit) his Japanese friends the day before.
19 Mrs. Smith said she ________ to Xi’an twice. (be)
20 She asked me if I __________ (read) the story .

高中英语语法必修课:过去完成时时态对比

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 91 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:30 • 来自相关话题

高中英语语法必修课:过去完成时时态对比 一、过去完成时与现在完成时的区别 现在完成时表示的动作发生在过去,以现在的时间为基点,但侧重对现在产生的结果或造成的影响,与现在有关,其结构为“助动词 have (has) + ...查看全部
365.jpg

高中英语语法必修课:过去完成时时态对比

一、过去完成时与现在完成时的区别
现在完成时表示的动作发生在过去,以现在的时间为基点,但侧重对现在产生的结果或造成的影响,与现在有关,其结构为“助动词 have (has) + 过去分词”;过去完成时则是一个相对的时态,已过去时间为基点,它所表示的动作不仅发生在过去,更强调“过去的过去”,只有和过去某时或某动作相比较时,才用到它。
比较:I have learned 1000 English words so far.到目前为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。
I had learned 1000 English words till then.到那时为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。
— I'm sorry to keep you waiting. 对不起,让你久等了。
— Oh, not at all. I have been here only a few minutes.没什么,我只等了几分钟。(“等”的动作从过去某一时间点持续到现在)
二、过去完成时与一般过去时的区别
虽然这两种时态都表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,但在使用时应注意以下几点:
1. 时间状语不同:过去完成时在时间上强调“过去的过去”;而一般过去时只强调过去某一特定的时间。
比较:They had arrived at the station by ten yesterday.
They arrived at the station at ten yesterday.
2. 在没有明确的过去时间状语作标志时,谓语动词动作发生的时间先后须依据上下文来判断:先发生的用过去完成时,后发生的则用一般过去时。
She was very happy. Her whole family were pleased with her, too. She had just won the first in the composition competition.
3. 当两个或两个以上接连发生的动作用 and 或 but 连接时,按时间顺序,只需用一般过去时来代替过去完成时;另外,在 before , after , as soon as 引导的从句中,由于这些连词本身已经表示出时间的先后,因此也可以用过去时来代替过去完成时。
He entered the room, turned on the light and read an evening paper.

高中英语语法必修课:过去完成时用法归纳

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 40 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:28 • 来自相关话题

高中英语语法必修课:过去完成时用法归纳 过去完成时(past perfect)表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。 它表示句子中描述的动作发生在“过去的过去”。 基本结构:主语+had+过去分词 ...查看全部
431.jpg

高中英语语法必修课:过去完成时用法归纳

过去完成时(past perfect)表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。
它表示句子中描述的动作发生在“过去的过去”。
基本结构:主语+had+过去分词(done)
①肯定句:主语+had+过去分词+其他.
②否定句:主语+had+not+过去分词+其他.
③一般疑问句:Had+主语+过去分词+其他?
肯定回答:Yes,主语+had.
否定回答:No,主语+had not .
④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词或词组+一般疑问句(Had+主语+过去分词+其他)?
基本用法
(1)表示在过去某一时刻或动作以前完成了的动作,也可以说过去的时间关于过去的动作。即“过去的过去”。可以用by, before等介词短语或一个时间状语从句来表示,也可以用一个表示过去的动作来表示,还可能通过上下文来表示。
例如: By nine o’clock last night, we had got 200 pictures from the spaceship.
到昨晚9点钟,我们已经收到200 张飞船发来的图片。
(2)表示由过去的某一时刻开始,一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态,常和for, since构成的时间状语连用。
例如: I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came.
当车来的时候,我在车站已等了20分钟。
He said he had worked in that factory since 1949.
他说自从1949年以来他就在那家工厂工作。
(3)叙述过去发生的事情,在已叙述了过去发生的事情后,反过来追述或补述以前发生的动作时,常使用过去完成时。
例如: Mr. Smith died yesterday. He had been a good friend of mine.
史密斯先生昨天去世了。他以前是我的好友。
I didn’t know a thing about the verbs, for I had not studied my lesson.
我对动词一无所知,因为我没有好好学习功课。
(4)在含有定语从句的主从复合句中,如果叙述的是过去的事,先发生的动作常用过去完成时。
例如: I returned the book that I had borrowed.
我已归还了我借的书。
She found the key that she had lost.
她丢失的钥匙找到了。
(5)过去完成时常常用在told,said,knew,heard,thought等动词后的宾语从句(或间接引语)中,这时从句中的动作发生在主句表示的过去的动作之前。
例如: He said that he had known her well.
他说他很熟悉她。
I thought I had sent the letter a week before.
我认为我一星期前就把信寄出去了。
(6) 状语从句:在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在前,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。
如when,before,after,as soon as,till/until引导的
例如: When I woke up, it had already stopped raining.
我醒来时雨已停了。
She didn’t go to bed until she had finished her work.
她直到把工作做完之后才睡觉。
注意:如果两个动作紧接着发生,则常常不用过去完成时,特别是在包含before和after的复合句中,因为 这 时从句的动作和主句的动作发生的先后顺序已经非常明确,这时可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。
例如: After he arrived in England, Marx worked hard to improve his English.
马克思到达英格兰之后,努力提高他的英语水平。
(7)动词think, want, hope, mean, plan, intend等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现的想法,希望,打算或意图等。
例如: They had wanted to help but could not get there in time.
他们本来打算去帮忙,但没有及时赶到那里。
We had hoped to be able to come and see you .
我们本来希望能来看看你。
(8)过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, It was the first (second, etc)
time (that)…等固定句型中。
例如: Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him.
他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了他。
No sooner had he arrived than he went away again
他刚到就又走了。
It was the third time that he had been out of work that year.
这是他那一年第三次失业了。
时间状语
before,when,after,by+,until, once,had no sooner……than
过去完成时-语法判定
1. 由时间状语来判定
一般说来,各种时态都有特定的时间状语。与过去完成时连用的时间状语有:
( 1 ) by + 过去的时间点。如:
I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night.
( 2 ) by the end of + 过去的时间点。如:
We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term.
( 3 ) before + 过去的时间点。如:
They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday.
2. 由“过去的过去”来判定。
过去完成时表示“过去的过去”,是指过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作,即动作有先后关系,动作在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时。这种用法常出现在:
( 1 )宾语从句中
当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的动作先于主句的动作时,从句要用过去完成时。在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。如:
She said that she had seen the film before.
( 2 )状语从句中
在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中,主、从句的动作发生有先后关系,动作在前的,要用过去完成时,动作在后的要用一般过去时。如:
After he had finished his homework, he went to bed.
注意: before, after 引导的时间状语从句中,由于 before 和 after 本身已表达了动作的先后关系,若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连,则主、从句都用一般过去时。如:
After he closed the door, he left the classroom.
(3)表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"
We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.
3. 根据上、下文来判定。
I met Wang Tao in the street yesterday. We hadn't seen each other since he went to Beijing.

高中英语语法练习:直接引语和间接引语的模拟练习题

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 36 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:23 • 来自相关话题

高中英语语法练习:直接引语和间接引语的模拟练习题 直接引语和间接引语练习 I. 请选出正确的答案: 1. Where was Alice’s sister? I don’t know where ___ ...查看全部
高中英语2.jpg

高中英语语法练习:直接引语和间接引语的模拟练习题

直接引语和间接引语练习
I. 请选出正确的答案:
1. Where was Alice’s sister? I don’t know where ________.
A. was Alice’s sister    B. Alice’s sister was
C. is Alice’s sister     D. Alice’s sister is
2. What did he say? I don’t know what _________.
A. did he say   B. he says   C. he has said  D. he said
3. I don’t know ___________.
A. the reason why can be   B. why the reason may be
C. what the reason can be   D. what the reason may be
4. I wonder ___________ .which of the following is not the right choice?
A. whether she will be fit for the job or not
B. whether or not she will be fit for the job
C. if she will be fit for the job
D. what she will be fit for the job
5. Is Mr. Wu from Beijing? I don’t know ________.
A. where does he come from   B. from where does he come
C. which city he comes from  D. what city he comes from
6. Can you make sure ___________?
A. that he will come here today  B. when he will come here today
C. will he come here today     D. whether will he come here today
7. Do you happen to know ________?
A. where is her address   B. in which place is her address
C. what her address is    D. the place her address is
8. Excuse me, but can you tell me ___________?
A. where can I get to the library B. where I can get to the library
C. how can I get to the library  D. how I can get to the library
9. John asked me _______ to visit his uncle’s farm with him.
A. how would I like    B. if or not would I like
C. whether I would like   D. which I would like
10. I’d like to know ________ Chinese.
A. when he began to learn  B. when did he begin to learn
C. when did he begin learning D. for how long he began to learn
11. He asked _____.
A. where is the railway station.  B. where the railway station is
C. where was the railway station  D. where the railway station was
12. The inspector said, “This machine is the worst I’ve ever seen.”
A. The inspector said that machine was the worst I’d ever seen.
B. The inspector said that machine was the worst I’ve ever seen.
C. The inspector said that machine was the worst he ever saw.
D. The inspector said that that machine was the worst he had ever seen.
13. She told me this morning _____.
A. how had the accident happened B. how did the accident happened
C. how happened the accident  D. how the accident had happened
14. The policeman asked him _____.
A. what was his name   B. what his name was
C. which was his name   D. who was his name
15. He told us he _____ a concert _____ .
A. had attended ... three days before B. attended ... three days ago
C. would attend ... since three days D. was attending ... for three days
16. The biology teacher said, “The leaves come out in spring.”
A. The biology teacher said that the leaves come out in spring.
B. The biology teacher said that the leaves came out in spring.
C. The biology teacher said that the leaves would come out in spring.
D. The biology teacher said that the leaves should come out in spring.
17. Do you know _____
A. what the population of China is      B. how much is the population of China
C. what is the population of China D. how many the population of china is
18. The teacher asked, “Where are you going, John”
A. The teacher asked where was John going
B. The teacher asked him where John was going.
C. The teacher asked John where he was going.
D. The teacher asked John where he went.
19. “My sister is coming here with us tonight.” Ann said.
A. Ann said that her sister is coming here with us tonight.
B. Ann said that her sister was coming here with them tonight.
C. Ann said that her sister was coming there that night.
D. Ann said that her sister was going there with them that night.
20. The young policeman told the boys _____ .
A. never to play with fire  B. not to play the fire
C. not to play fire   D. don’t play with the fire
II. 将下列句子变为间接引语:
1. “You should be more careful next time,” his father said to him.
2. Mr. Wang said, “I will leave for Shanghai on business next month, children.”
3. “I haven’t heard from my parents these days,” said Mary.
4. The geography teacher said to us, “The moon moves around the earth and the earth goes round the sun.”
5. She said to him, “It’s time that you left here.”
6. Zhang Hong said to me, “Doctor Wang passed away in 1948.”
7. John said to his parents, “I had learned 500 Chinese words by the end
of last term.”
8. The history teacher said to them, “The Chinese Communist Party was founded on July 1st , 1921.”
9. He said, “Are you a student?”
10. “Have you anything interesting I can read, George?” she said.
11. “She’s here to ask for help, isn’t she?” he asked.
12. “Where are you going?” the father asked his son.
13. “Are you sorry for what you have done?” the mother asked the naughty boy.
14. She said, “Did you meet this man at the station two hours ago, Mr. Li?”
15. “Write your names on your papers first,” the teacher said to us.
16. “Please come here again tomorrow,” her friend said to her.
17. “Let me pack the parcel for you,” he said.
18. “Don’t make so much noise in class, boys and girls,” said the teacher.
19. “What a lovely day it is!”
20. “Happy New Year to you!” he said.
III. 把下列句子变为直接引语:
1. I told him that I had lost my money and that I would find it.
2. She asked whether I would be free the next day or not.
3. I asked her where she was going and what she was going to do the next day.
4. His father told him not to climb that high tree in his new coat.
5. The stranger asked me what my name was.
6. She said that she would finish her work the next day.
7. The teacher asked if we could do it.
8. The commander ordered his men not to cross the river before dawn.
9. My teacher asked whether he was coming.
10. The scientist asked me what I was doing.
IV.将所给直接引语变为间接引语,每空一词:
1. “I never eat meat.” he said.
He said that ______ never ______ meat.
2. “I’ve found my wallet.” he said to me.
He ______ me that he ______ ______ ______ wallet.
3. “I took it home with me.” she said.
She said that ______ ______ _______ it home with her.
4. The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and goes down in the west.”
The teacher said that the sun ______ in the east and ______ down in the west.
5. “I met her yesterday.” he said to me.
He ______ me that he ______ met the day ______.
6. “You must come here before five.” he said.
He said that I ______ to go ______ before five.
7. “I bought the house 10 years ago.” he said.
He said that he _______ bought the house 10 years _______.
8. “Did you see her last week?” he said.
He ______ ______ I had seen her the week _______.
9. He said, “You can sit here, Jim.”
He ______ Jim that he ______ sit there
10. He asked, “How did you find it, mother?”
He asked her mother ______ ______ ______ found it.
11. “Where have you been these days?” he asked.
He asked me _______ _______ _______been _______ days.
12. “Do you know where she lives?” he asked.
He asked ______ ______ knew where she ______.
13. “Stop making so much noise, children.” he said.
He ______ the children ______ ______ making so much noise.
14. “Don’t tell him the news.” she said.
She told me _______ ______ ______ him the news.
15. “Are you intested in this?” he said.
He ______ ______ I was interestd in ______.

直接引语和间接引语练习答案
I. 1~5  B D C D C      6~10  A C D C A
11~15 DDDBA    16~20 AACDA
II. 1. His father told him that he should be more careful the next time.
2. Mr. Wang told the children that he would leave for Shanghai on business the next month.
3. Mary said that she hadn’t heard from her parents those days.
4. The geography teacher told us that the moon moves around the earth and the earth goes round the sun.
5. She told him that it was time that he left there.
6. Zhang Hong told me that Doctor Wang passed away in 1948.
7. John told his parents that he had learned 500 Chinese words by the end of last term.
8. The history teacher told them that the Chinese Communist Party was founded on July 1st, 1921.
9. He asked whether I was a student.
10. She asked George if he had anything interesting she could read.
11. He asked whether she was there to ask for help or not.
12. The father asked his son where he was going.
13. The mother asked the naughty boy if he was sorry for what he had done.
14. She asked Mr. Li whether he had met that man at the station two hours before.
15. The teacher told us to write our names on our papers first.
16. Her friend asked her to go there again the next/ following day.
17. He offered to pack the parcel for me.
18. The teacher told the boys and girls not to make so much noise in class.
19. He/ She exclaimed that it was really a lovely day.20. He wished me a Happy New Year.
III. 1. I said to him, “I have lost my money . I will find it.”
2. She asked , “ You will be free tomorrow, won’t you?”
3. I asked her, “Where are you going and what are you going to do tomorrow?”
4. His father said, “Don’t climb this high tree in your new coat.”
5. The stranger asked, “ What’s your name?”
6. “I’ll finish my work tomorrow,” she said.
7. The teacher asked, “Can you do it ?”
8. The commander ordered his men, “Don’t cross the river before dawn.”
9. My teacher asked, “Is he coming?”
10.  The scientist asked me, “What are you doing?”
IV.【参考答案】
1. he, ate                                   2. told, had, found, his
3. she, had, taken                            4. rise, goes
5. told, had, before                           6. had, there
7. had, before                               8. asked, if [whether], before
9. told, could                               10. how, she, had
11. where, I, had, those                       12. if [whether], I, lived  
13. told, to, stop                             14. not, to, tell
15. asked, if [whether], that

高考英语语法提升:直接引语和间接引语难点分析

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 41 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:21 • 来自相关话题

高考英语语法提升:直接引语和间接引语难点分析 1.“Speak English more often in and out of class,” our English teacher said to us. Our ...查看全部
高中英语1.jpg

高考英语语法提升:直接引语和间接引语难点分析

1.“Speak English more often in and out of class,” our English teacher said to us.
Our English teacher suggested us to speak English more often in and out of class. (误)
Our English teacher told /asked us to speak English more often in and out of class. (正)
Our English teacher suggested that we(should)speak English more often in and out of class. (正)
简析:直接引语是祈使句,变为间接引语时,要将祈使句的动词原形变为带to的不定式,并在不定式的前面根据语气需要使用ask,tell,order等动词,其句型是:ask/tell/order someone to do sth.,但是suggest不能接不定式作宾补,只能接-ing形式或从句(从句用虚拟语气)作宾语。
2.“Don’t play football on the street,little boys,” the policeman said.
The policeman told the little boys did not play football on the street. (误)
The policeman told the little boys not to play football on the street. (正)
简析:如果直接引语是祈使句的否定式,变为间接引语时,要将其改为不定式的否定形式作宾补,不定式的否定形式是在不定式前面加not,而不是加do not,does not,did not等。
3.“Would you please do me the favor to carry the box upstairs?” the young woman said to me.
The young woman ordered me to carry the box upstairs for her. (误)
The young woman asked me to carry the box upstairs for her.(正)
简析:直接引语是一些表示请求、建议的疑问句,变为间接引语时, 也变为不定式作宾语补足语。需要注意的是应根据原句的语气选用恰当的动词。因为此处原来的疑问句用的是很客气的语气,改写后不宜用order。
4.“You clean the classroom after class today,Tom,” said the monitor.
The monitor said that Tom cleaned the classroom after class that day.(误)
The monitor told Tom to clean the classroom after class that day. (正)
简析:一般而言,祈使句是以动词原形开头的,但是如果说话人有意强调动作执行者,也可以在句首加上主语。我们在将其变为间接引语时不能将带有主语的祈使句与陈述句混淆起来。
5.“It’s a fine day. Let’s go to the country for a picnic,” Peter said to me.
Peter told me that it was a fine day and let us go to the country for a picnic. (误)
Peter said that it was a fine day and asked me to go to the country for a picnic with him. (正)
简析:当直接引语中有多种句子形式如陈述句、祈使句、疑问句等时,我们就要用不同的方式将各种句子进行转述。因为原句中直接引语前面部分是陈述句,故变为由that引导的宾语从句,后面部分是祈使句所以变为不定式作宾补。

高中英语语法必修:直接引语和间接引语用法归纳

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 36 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:19 • 来自相关话题

高中英语语法必修:直接引语和间接引语用法归纳 一、引述别人的话有两种方式:一是使用引号引出人家的原话,这叫做直接引语;一是用自己的话把人家的话转述出来,这叫做间接引语。 例如: John said, & ...查看全部
高中英语.jpg

高中英语语法必修:直接引语和间接引语用法归纳

一、引述别人的话有两种方式:一是使用引号引出人家的原话,这叫做直接引语;一是用自己的话把人家的话转述出来,这叫做间接引语。
例如:
John said, "I'm going to London with my father."
约翰说:"我要和父亲到伦敦去。"(引号内是直接引语)
John said that he was going to London with his father.
约翰说,他要和他父亲去伦敦。(宾语从句是间接引语)

二、由直接引语变为间接引语,分以下情况:
1、直接引语是陈述句时
间接引语为that引导的宾语从句(口语中that可以省略),主句的引述动词主要有say ,tell, repeat, explain, think等。
He said , "You are younger than I."-'He said (that ) I was younger than him.
2、直接引语是疑问句时
间接引语为陈述语序:主句的谓语动词say 改为ask,或改为wonder, do not know, want to know, be not sure, be puzzled等。
(1)一般疑问句或反意疑问句变为if (whether)引导的宾语从句。
She said, "Do you often come here to read newspapers?"
→She asked me if (或whether)I often went there to read newspapers.
She asked me , "You have seen the film, haven't you?"
→She asked me whether(或if )I had seen the film.
(2)选择疑问句变为whether….or 宾语从句。
I asked him, "Will you stay at home or go to a film tonight?"
→I asked him whether he would stay at home or go to a film that night.
(3)特殊疑问句变为由原来的疑问词引导的宾语从句。
He asked , "Where do you live?"
→He asked me where I lived.
3.直接引语是祈使句时
间接引语为不定式,作ask , tell, beg, order, warn, advise等动词的宾语补足语(don't 变为not ).
The teacher said to the boy, "Open the window."→The teacher told the boy to open the window.
His father said to him , "Don't leave the door open."→His father told him not to leave the door open.
[注意]
(1) 有些表示建议、提议、劝告或要求的祈使句,可以用suggest ,insist等动词加以转述。例如:
He said, "Let's go to the theatre."
→He suggested (our )going to the theatre.或He suggested that we(should) go to the theatre.
(2) "Would you mind opening the window?" he asked.
→He asked me to open the window.
"Why don't you take a walk after supper?" he asked .
→he advised me to take a walk after supper.
"Shall we listen to the music?" he asked.
→He suggested listening to the music.
4.直接引语是感叹句时
间接引语为what 或how 引导,也可以用that 引导。
She said, "What a lovely day it is !"
→She said what a lovely day it was .或She said that it was a lovely day.
5.如果主句谓语动词为各种现在时或一般将来时,则间接引语中的动词仍保持直接引语原来时态。如果主句谓语动词为过去时,间接引语中的动词时态按下列变化:
(1) 一般现在时变为一般过去时
(2) 现在进行时变为过去进行时
(3) 一般将来时变为过去将来时
(4) 现在完成时变为过去完成时
(5) 一般过去时变为过去完成时
(6) 过去完成时不变,仍为过去完成时
[注意]
(1) 如果直接引语是表示客观真理时,变为间接引语,一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如:
The teacher said "The earth goes round the sun."
→The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.
(2) 如果直接引语中有明确表示过时间的状语,变为间接引语时,一般过去时不改为过去完成时。如:
He said to me, "I was born in 1973."
→He told me that he was born in 1973.
(3)如果直接引语所述事实在当时和目前同样生效,变为间接宾语时,一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如:
He said, "I'm a boy, not a girl."
→He said that he is a boy ,not a girl.
(4)如果直接引语中的谓语动词表示一种反复出现或习惯动作,在变为间接引时,一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如:
The girl said, "I get up at six every morning."
→The girl said that she gets up at six every morning.
(5)如果直接引语中含有since, when, while 引导的表示过去时间的状语从句,在变为间接引语时,只改变主句中的谓语动词,从句的一般过去时则不变。如:
He said to me, "I have taught English since he came here ."
→He told me that he had taught English since he came here.
(6)如果直接引语中含有情态动词 must, need, had better以及情态动词的过去式could, might, should, would,在变为间接引语时,这些情态动词没有时态的改变。例如:
The teacher said to me . "You must pay more attention to your pronunciation."
→The teacher told me that I must (have to ) pay more attention to my pronunciation.
He said , "I could swim when I was only six ."
→He said that he could swim when he was only six.

6.代词等一般地应作用相应的变化,变化方法见下表。

指示代词

this……these
 
these……those
 
表示时间的词

now……then
 
today……that day
 
this week(month ,etc)……that week (month ,etc)
 
yesterday……the day before
 
last week(month ,etc)……the week(month ,etc) before
 
three days (a year ,etc) ago……three days (a year. etc) before
 
tomorrow……the next (following ) day   
 
next week (month ,etc)……the next (following ) week (month ,etc)
 
表地点的词

here……there
 
动词
bring……take
 
come……go

直接引语变间接引语面面观
一、如何变人称:将直接引语变间接引语时,常常弄不清人称变化。下面有一句顺口溜“一随主。二随宾,第三人称不更新”。“一随主”是指在直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰。从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化如:She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→She said her brother wanted to go with her.
“二随宾”是指直接引语变间接引语时,若从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称。或被第二人你所修饰。从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一致。如果引号外的主句没有宾语。也可以用第一人称,如:He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"→He asked Kate how her sister was then。
“第三人称不更新”是指直接引语变间接引语时。如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称或被第三人称所修饰从句中的人称一般不需要变化如:Mr Smith said。 "Jack is a good worker。"→Mr Smith said Jack was a good worker。
二、如何变时态:直接引语在改为间接引语时、时态需要做相应的调整。现在时它需改为过去时态;过去时态改为完成时;过去完成时则保留原来的时态。如1)She said. "I have lost a pen."→She said she had lost a pen2)She said. "We hope so."→She said they hoped so.3) She said. "He will go to see his friend。"→She said he would go to see his friend。但要注意在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一般不变化。
①直接引语是客观真理。"The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me. → The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。
②直接引语是过去进行时,时态不变。如:Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"→Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street。
③直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。如:Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980。" →Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980。
④直接引语如果是一般现在时。表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作,变间接引语,时态不变。如:He said, "I get up at six every morning。" →He said he gets up at six every morning。
⑤如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例:ought to, had better, used to)和已经是过去时的形式时,(例:could, should, would, might)不再变。如:Peter said. "You had better come have today。" →Peter said I had better go there that day。
三、如何变状语:直接引语变间接引语,状语变化有其内在规津,时间状语由“现在”改为“原来”(例:now变为then, yesterday。变为 the day before)地点状语,尤其表示方向性的,或用指示代词修饰的状语,由“此”改为“彼”(例:this 改为that),如:He said, "These books are mine." →He said those books were his.
四、如何变句型:①直接引语如果是陈述句,间接引语应改为由that引导的宾语从句。如:She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.
②直接引语如果是反意疑问句,选择疑问句或一般疑问句,间接引语应改为由whether或if引导的宾语从句.如:He said, "Can you swim, John?" →He asked John if he could swim."You have finished the homework, haven‘t you?" my mother asked. →My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework."Do you go to school by bus or by bike?" →He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike.
③直接引语如果是特殊问句,间接引语应该改为由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的宾语从句(宾语从句必须用陈述句语序)。She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"→ She asked me when they had their dinner.
④直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为"tell(ask, order, beg等) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如:"Don’t make any noise," she said to the children. →She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise. "Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.
⑤直接引语如果是以“Let‘s”开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,通常用“suggest +动句词(或从句)。”如:He said, "Let’s go to the film." →He suggested going to the film.或He suggested that they should go to see the film.

高中英语语法必修:名词性从句介绍及真题练习

高中英语Everett 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 37 次浏览 • 2019-09-19 15:18 • 来自相关话题

高中英语语法必修:名词性从句介绍及真题练习 名词性从句:在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句 (Noun Clauses)。 名词性从句在复合句中能担任:主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等。 名词性从 ...查看全部
243.jpg

高中英语语法必修:名词性从句介绍及真题练习

名词性从句:在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句 (Noun Clauses)。
名词性从句在复合句中能担任:主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等。
名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。
一、引导名词性从句的连接词
引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:
1、从属连词(5个):
(1)that无词义,在从句中不做成分,在宾语从句或表语从句中that有时可以省略
(2)whether,if 有词义,在从句中不做成分(whether,if均表示“是否”之意,表明从句内容的不确定性)不可以省略
(3)as if, as though (均表示“好像”,“似乎”之意)在从句中不做成分  
2、连接代词(9个):what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, which, whichever,有词义,在从句中做成分,不可以省略(who what which 在从句中做主语、宾语、其中what 指代没有范围的事物,which指代有范围的事物,表“选择哪一个”whom做宾语whose 做定语)
3、连接副词(7个):when, where, how, why, whenever, wherever, however有词义,在从句中做状语,不可以省略
4、that省略的情况:
    (1)定语从句中做宾语
(2)that引导宾语从句时
(3)that引导表语从句时
(4)主语从句中it做形式主语,that从句置于句末时
5、that不可省略的情况:
(1)定语从句中做主语
(2)由that引导主语从句放句首时
(3)that引导同位语从句时
(4)宾语从句中i  it做形式宾语,真正的that宾语从句中that不可以省略
                    ii  一个句子有两个或多个并列的宾语从句时,引导第二个和以后几个句子中的that不可以省略
                    iii  与动词相隔的宾语从句,不可以省略
                    iv  that引导的宾语从句放在句首时,不可以省略
二. 主语从句
1、主语从句:作句子主语的从句叫主语从句。
主语从句通常由下列词引导:
1)从属连词that,whether 等;
2)连接代词what,who,which,whatever,whoever,whom 等;
3) 连接副词how,when,where,why 等。
2、that在句中无词义,只起连接作用;连接代词和连接副词在句中既保留自己的疑问含义、又起连接作用,在从句中充当从句的成分。注:whom、who指人,what指物,whatever,whoever表示泛指意义。例如:
What he wants to tell us is not clear. 他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚。
Who will win the match is still unknown. 谁能赢得这场比赛还不得而知。
It is known to us how he became a writer. 我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。
Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced. 英语晚会将在哪里举行,还没有宣布。
注意:有时为避免句子头重脚轻,常用形式主语it代替主语从句作形式主语放于句首,而把主语从句置于句末。主语从句后的谓语动词一般用单数形式。常用句型如下:
(1)It + be + 名词 + that从句:It is a fact that  事实是
                             It is an honour that 非常荣幸
                             It is common knowledge that  …是常识
                             It is a pity that  遗憾……
(2)It + be + 动词的过去分词+ that从句:
                            It is said that  据说
                            It is reported that 据报道
                            It has been proved that 已经证明
                            It is believed that …  人们认为
                            It is supposed that…  据猜测
(3)It + 不及物动词(vi) + that 从句:
                            It seems that  似乎
                            It happened that 碰巧
                            It appears that  似乎
(4)It + be + 形容词 + that从句
                            It is natural that…  很自然…
                            It is strange that…  奇怪的是…
注意:在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等语气时,谓语动词要用虚拟语气“(should) +do”,常用的句型有:
It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.) that …
It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that…
3、It 作形式主语和it引导强调句的比较
①It 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平衡句子结构,主语从句的连接词没有变化。②it引导的强调句则是对句子某一部分进行强调,无论强调的是什么成分,都可用连词that引导,被强调部分指人时也可用who/whom。例如:
    a) It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film.  你不去看那场电影真可惜。
    b) It doesn’t interest me whether you succeed or not. 我对你成功与否不感兴趣。
    c) It is in the morning that the murder took place. 谋杀案是在早上发生的。(强调句型)
    d) It is John that broke the window. 是John打碎的窗户。(强调句型)
4、注意:since, if 不能引导主语从句,但当it做形式主语,主语从句放在句末时,if, whether均可
5、主语从句不可位于句首的五种情况:
(1)if 引导的主语从句不可居于复合句句首。
(2)It is said /reported…结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如:
        正确表达:It is said that President Jiang will visit our school next week.
        错误表达:That President Jiang will visit our school next week is said.
(3)It happens/occurs…结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如:
       正确表达:It occurred to him that he failed in the examination.
       错误表达:That he failed in the examination occurred to him.
(4)It doesn’t matter how/whether …结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如:
       正确表达:It doesn’t matter whether he is wrong or not.
       错误表达:Whether he is wrong or not doesn’t matter.
(5)含主语从句的复合句是疑问句时,主语从句不可提前。例如:
       正确表达:Is it likely that it will rain in the evening?
       错误表达:Is that will rain in the evening likely?
6、what 与that 在引导主语从句时的区别
    what 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当句子成分,如主语.宾语.表语,而that 则不然。例如:
    a) What you said yesterday is right.
    b) That she is still alive is a consolation
三、表语从句
表语从句:在复合句中,位于系动词之后作表语的从句叫表语从句。引导表语从句的关联词与引导主语从句的关联词大致一样,表语从句位于连系动词后,有时用as if引导。
可以接表语从句的系动词有be ,look , remain(保持), seem等
常用的还有the reason is that …  It is because …  It appears/seems that…
          It happens that…  It turns out that…(结果是...)等结构
由从属连词,连接代词,连接副词引导,其中that常常可以省略
由as if, as though 引导   It looks as if…  It seems as if…
why, because 都可以引导表语从句,但why强调结果,because强调理由
当主语为suggestion, order, requirement, advice, request, demand 等这类名词时,表语从句用虚拟语气(should)do
if不能引导表语从句
注意:当主语是reason时,表语从句要用that引导而不是because。例如:
The reason why he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning .
【注意】whether 可引导表语从句,但与之同义的if却通常不用于引导表语从句。
四、同位语从句
1、同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具体内容。同位语从句通常由that引导,that不可以省略
  由whether引导,不可用if
2、可用于同位语从句的名词有belief、advice、demand、doubt(怀疑)、possibility、though、proposal、case、fact、hope、idea、information、message、news、order、problem、promise、question、request、suggestion、truth、wish、word等。例如:
The news that we won the game is exciting. 我们赢得这场比赛的消息令人激动。
I have no idea when he will come back home. 我不知道他什么时候回来。
The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. 他想到可能玛丽生病了。
3、在no idea后用wh-疑问词引导
4、 同位语从句与定语从句的区别
(1) 定语从句中的that既代替先行词,同时以在从句中作某个成分(主语或宾语),而同位语从句中的that是连词,只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当句中任何成分。
(2) 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述定的性质或特征;同位语从句是名词性的,其功能是对名词进行补充说明。例如:
1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.(他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年将出国。)(第一个that引导的从句是定语从句,that在从句中作宾语)
2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.(汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。)(同位语从句,that在句中不作任何成分)

五、宾语从句
宾语从句:名词从句用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。由从属连词、连接代词、连接副词引导。
1. 由连接词that引导的宾语从句
由连接词that引导宾语从句时,that在句中不担任任何成分,在口语或非正式的文体中常被省去,但如从句是并列句时,第二个分句前的that不可省。例如:
He has told me that he will go to Shanghai tomorrow. 他已经告诉我他明天要去上海。
We must never think (that) we are good in everything while others are good in nothing. 我们决不能认为自己什么都好,别人什么都不好。
注意:在demand、order(命令)、suggest、decide、insist(坚持), desire, urge,advice,propose,require,request, command(命令), doubt等表示要求、命令、建议、决定等意义的动词后,宾语从句常用“(should)+ 动词原形”。例如:
I insist that she (should) do her work alone. 我坚持要她自己工作。
The commander ordered that troops (should) set off at once. 司令员命令部队马上出发。
2. 用who,whom, which, whose, what, when, where, why, how, whoever, whatever, whichever等关联词引导的宾语从句相当于特殊疑问句,应注意句子语序要用陈述语序。例如:
I want to know what he has told you. 我想知道他告诉了你什么。
She always thinks of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。
She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 凡需要帮助的人,她都会给予热情的支持。
3. 用whether或if引导的宾语从句,其主语和谓语的顺序也不能颠倒,仍保持陈述句语序。此外,whether与if 在作“是否”的意思讲时在下列情况下一般只能用whether,不用if:
a. 引导主语从句并在句首时;b. 引导表语从句时;c . 引导从句作介词宾语时;d. 从句后有“or not”时;e. 后接动词不定式时。例如:
Whether there is life on the moon is an interesting question. 月球上有没有生命是个有趣的问题。
Everything depends on whether we have enough money. 一切要看我们是否有足够的钱。
I wonder whether he will come or not. 我想知道他来还是不来。
Can you tell me whether to go or to stay? 你能否告诉我是去还是留?
4. 注意宾语从句中的时态呼应,当主句动词是现在时,从句根据自身的句子情况,而使用
不同时态。例如:
I know (that) he studies English every day. (从句用一般现在时)
I know (that) he studied English last term. (从句用一般过去时)
I know (that) he will study English next year. (从句用一般将来时)
I know (that) he has studied English since 1998. (从句用现在完成时)
当主句动词是过去时态(could, would除外),从句则要用相应的过去时态,如一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时等;当从句表示的是客观真理,科学原理,自然现象,则从句仍用现在时态。例如:
The teacher told us that Tom had left us for America.
5. think, believe, imagine, suppose,guess,expect,fancy,consider等等动词引起的否定性宾语从句中,要把上述主句中的动词变为否定式。即将从句中的否定形式移到主句中。例如:
We don’t think you are here. 我们认为你不在这。
I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他不会这样做。
6、后面不能接that从句的动词有:condemn谴责,判刑  force强迫  take拿走  forgive原谅  dislike不喜欢  refuse拒绝  let  like  love  help  admire羡慕  allow  celebrate  cause
注:以上动词后不能接that从句,但可以用不定式,动名词做宾语。
六、whether与if 均为"是否"的意思。 但在下列情况下,只可用whether:
1. whether引导主语从句并在句首时,只能用whether,当it做形式主语,主语放句首时,whether,if均可
eg:whether he can come to the party on time depends on the traffic
2. 引导表语从句
eg:The question is whether we can get in touch with her
3. whether从句作介词宾语
  e.g:It depends on whether he will come.
4.if与whether都可以与or not 连用,但后面紧跟or not 时只能用whether
We didn't know whether or not she was ready.(此时只能用whether)
I wonder whether/if the news is true or not.(此时则二者都可以用)
5. 引导同位语从句
Whether he will come is not clear.
6.后接不定式时
Eg I don’t know whether to go.
7.在discuss后只能用whether
注意:(1)大部分连接词引导的主语从句都可以置于句末,用 it充当形式主语。It is not important who will go.
            It is still unknown which team will win the match.
(2)whether从句中不能有否定式,而if可以
            I don’t care if he doesn’t come.

七、名词性that-从句
(1)由从属连词that引导的从句叫做名词性that-从句。That只起连接主句和从句的作用,在从句中不担任任何成分,本身也没有词义。名词性that-从句在句中能充当主 语、宾语、表语、同位语和形容词宾语,例如:
主语:That she is still alive is her luck. 她还活着全靠运气。
宾语:John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 约翰说他星期三要到伦敦去。
表语:The fact is that he has not been seen recently. 事实是近来谁也没有见过他。
同位语:The fact that he has not been seen recently disturbs everyone in his office.
近来谁也没有见过他,这一事实令办公室所有的人不安。
形容词宾语:I am glad that you are satisfied with your job.
你对工作满意我感到很高兴。
2)That-从句作主语通常用it作先行词,而将that-从句置于句末,例如:
It is quite clear that the whole project is doomed to failure. 很清楚,整个计划注定要失败。
It's a pity that you should have to leave. 你非走不可真是件憾事。
用it作形式主语的that-从句有以下四种不同的搭配关系:
a. It + be +形容词+ that-从句
It is necessary that… 有必要……
It is important that… 重要的是……
It is obvious that… 很明显……
b. It + be + -ed 分词+ that-从句
It is believed that… 人们相信……
It is known to all that… 众所周知……
It has been decided that… 已决定……
c. It + be +名词+ that-从句
It is common knowledge that… ……是常识
It is a surprise that… 令人惊奇的是……
It is a fact that… 事实是……
d. It +不及物动词+ that-从句
It appears that… 似乎……
It happens that… 碰巧……
It occurred to me that… 我突然想起……
八、名词性wh-从句
1)由wh-词引导的名词从句叫做名词性wh-从句。Wh-词包括who, whom,. whose, whoever, what, whatever, which, whichever等连接代词和where, when, how, why等连接副词。Wh-从句的语法功能除了和that-从句一样外,还可充当介词宾语、宾语补语和间接宾语等,例如:
主语: How the book will sell depends on its author. 书销售如何取决于作者本人。
直接宾语:In one's own home one can do what one likes. 在自己家里可以随心所欲。
间接宾语:The club will give whoever wins a prize.
俱乐部将给得胜者设奖。
表语: My question is who will take over president of the Foundation. 我的问题是谁将接任该基金会主席职位。
宾语补足语:She will name him whatever she wants to. 她高兴给他起什么名字就取什么名字。
同位语: I have no idea when he will return.
我不知道他什么时候回来。
形容词宾语:I'm not sure why she refused their invitation. 我尚不能肯定她为什么拒绝他们的邀请。
介词宾语: That depends on where we shall go.
那取决于我们去哪儿。
2)Wh-从句作主语也常用先行词it做形式主语,而将wh-从句置于句末,例如:
It is not yet decided who will do that job.
还没决定谁做这项工作。
It remains unknown when they are going to get married. 他们何时结婚依然不明。
九、if, whether引导的名词从句
1)yes-no型疑问从句
从属连词if, whether引导的名词从句是由一般疑问句或选择疑问转化而来的,因此也分别被称为yes-no型疑问句从句和选择型疑问从句,其功能和wh-从句的功能相同, 例如:
主语:Whether the plan is feasible remains to be proved. 这一计划是否可行还有待证实。
宾语:Let us know whether / if you can finish the article before Friday. 请让我们知道你是否能在星期五以前把文章写完。
表语:The point is whether we should lend him the money. 问题在于我们是否应该借钱给他。
同位语:They are investigating the question whether the man is trustworthy. 他们调查他是否值得信赖。
形容词宾语: She's doubtful whether we shall be able to come. 她怀疑我们是否能够前来。
介词宾语: I worry about whether he can pass through the crisis of his illness. 我担心他是否能度过疾病的危险期。
2)选择性疑问从句
选择性疑问从句由关联词if/whether…or或whether…or not构成,例如:
Please tell me whether / if they are Swedish or Danish. 请告诉我他们是瑞典人还是丹麦人。
I don't care whether you like the plan or not.我不在乎你是否喜欢该计划。
if和whether的区别:
1、 在动词不定式之前只能用whether 。如:
例8 I can’t decide whether to stay. 我不能决定是否留下。
2、 在whether …… or not 的固定搭配中。如:
例9 I want to know whether it’s good news or not . 我想知道是否是好消息。
3 、在介词后,只能用whether。如:
例10 His father is worried about whether he lose his work . 他的父亲担心是否会失去工作。
4、宾语从句放在句首表示强调时,只能用whether 。如:
Whether this is true or not, I really don’t know. 这是否真的,我真的不知道。
(例11 Whether they can finish the work on time is still a problem . 他们是否能准时完成这项工作还是个问题。--此例为主语从句,有误,感谢指出)
5、用if会引起歧义时,只用whether。如:
例12 Could you tell me if you know the answer ?
这句话有两种意思:“你能告诉我是否知道答案吗?”或“如果你知道答案,请告诉我,好吗?”。如用whether可避免歧义.
十、否定转移
1) 将think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。
I don't think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。
I don' t believe he will come. 我相信他不回来。
注意:若谓语动词为hope,宾语从句中的否定词不能转移。
I hope you weren't ill. 我想你没有生病吧。
2) 将seem, appear 等后的从句的否定转移到前面。
It doesn't seem that they know where to go.
看来他们不知道往哪去。
It doesn't appear that we'll have a sunny day tomorrow.
看来我们明天不会碰上好天气。
3) 有时将动名词,介词短语或整个从句的否定转变为对谓语动词的否定。
I don't remember having ever seen such a man.
我记得从未见过这样一个人。 (not否定动名词短语 having…)
It's not a place where anyone would expect to see strange characters on the street.
在这里,人们不会想到在街上会碰上陌生的人。
(anyone 作主语,从句中的谓语动词不能用否定形式。)
4) 有时状语或状语从句中否定可以转移到谓语动词前。
The ant is not gathering this for itself alone. (否定状语) 蚂蚁不只是为自己采食。
He was not ready to believe something just because Aristotle said so. (否定because状语) 他并不因亚里斯多德说过如何如何,就轻信此事。
She had not been married many weeks when that man's younger brother saw her and was struck by her beauty. (否定状语many weeks) 她结婚还不到几个星期,这个人的弟弟就看见她了,并对她的美貌着了迷。